RALPH J. BUNCHE ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION (D-G)




DABBS, James McBride (n.d.)    RJB 258
Author, teacher and farmer. President, Southern Regional Council (SRC) (1957-1963). Describes local (South Carolina) reactions to writings. Comments on civil rights leaders. Discusses reactions of Southern whites to 1954 Supreme Court decision. Analyzes Southern mind, Black and white.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: July 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71, 74 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



DANDRIDGE, Gloria Richardson (1922- )    RJB 55
Leader of civil rights protest demonstrations in Cambridge, Maryland in early 1960's. Describes the nature of demonstrations and their results.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DANIEL, Allan Mercer (n.d.)    RJB 266
Law Librarian Emeritus, Howard University. Beginning with his observations on the rise of discrimination in Washington, D. C. 1903, Professor Daniel recalls his associations and impressions of noted national Negro leaders of the period. He discusses the numerous civil rights activities in which he was engaged.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIDSON, Eugene (1897-1976)    RJB 236
Former Board Member, District of Columbia chapter NAACP, 1927-1957. Former Administrator, New Negro Alliance. Recalls his experiences as a soldier in the segregated U. S. Army during World War I. Discusses the New Negro Alliance and its efforts to secure employment for Negroes 1933-1941.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIDSON, Julia (n.d.)    RJB 586
Director, Intensive Education Development (IED), University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Describes her program, which grew out of the Baltimore Upward Bound program and was aimed at recruiting poor (mostly Black) students into college, providing financial aid and other types of academic and moral support, and generally helping them adjust to the campus environment.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIES, Lawrence (n.d.)    RJB 618
First Black city councilman, Fredericksburg, Virginia. Describes his campaign which was structured and financed by a bi-racial organization, Citizens United for Action. Discusses other community activities of this group in the areas of housing and education. Describes life in his city of approximately 15,000 inhabitants.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Fred (ca. 1937- )    RJB 253
Member, City Council, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses involvement in city politics. Gives history of Memphis sanitation workers' strike. Describes influence of Martin Luther King Jr. on strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Robert (ca. 1927- )    RJB 619
Member, City Council, Clifton Forge, Virginia. Discusses his own political campaign as well as the challenges facing Black elected officials at the grassroots level in general, especially in terms of voter education and registration efforts among Blacks in the rural South.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Velma (n.d.)    RJB 566
Member, Black Student Union secretarial staff, University of Maryland. Comments on campus strike, Spring 1970, including sincerity of demonstrators, why Blacks did not participate, and expected gains.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 1, 1970
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, William R. (1929- )    RJB 117
First Black man to run for Pennsylvania State Legislature from Philadelphia (1966). Discusses his campaign. Describes his association with the National Organization for Black Power (1962) and the group's activities prior to national recognition of the Black Power concept. Discusses socio-economic conditions in Philadelphia's ghettoes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAY, Margaret "Peggy" Dammond (1942- )    RJB 98
Early SNCC worker in Georgia and Cambridge, Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 156 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAY, Noel (1933- )    RJB 61
Consultant on Community Organization. Organization for Social and Technical Innovation, Boston, Massachusetts. Recalls initial involvement in civil rights as program director for United Community Center, Brooklyn, New York. Discusses activities in Boston.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DEARMAN, John E. (ca.1930- )    RJB 441
Attorney. Discusses several civil rights activities and law cases that he has been associated with in San Francisco, California.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DeBERRY, Clifton (n.d.)    RJB 626
Member, Socialist Workers Party (SWP). SWP candidate for governor of New York (1970), SWP candidate for President of the United States (1964). Describes his efforts as a member of SWP to raise funds to support the Montgomery boycott. Comments on Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and theorizes about their assassinations. Discusses the Party's philosophy and its efforts to gain Black party members.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages, incomplete; cassette tape made of entire interview.
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: Standard

DELANEY, Kelly (n.d.), joint with    RJB 691
WATSON, Lance
Black activists and members of The Invaders, a young militant group, Memphis, Tennessee. Delaney describes the Invaders as a kind of on-demand community organizing and mobilization service. Recalls a protest march he conducted in 1969 at the invitation of Blacks in Forrest City, Arkansas: a "Walk Without Fear" from Memphis to Little Rock to protest racial inequities in that city. Both Delaney and Watson discuss why they formed an interracial activist coalition called "We the People" and talk about some of the group's goals and projected political activities, notably a "people's trial" of President Nixon.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DENT, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 480
Director, Free Southern Theater, New Orleans, Louisiana. Traces development of the Theater from its origin in the Mississippi civil rights movement in 1964 to its present base in New Orleans. Discusses theater's changing goals and future plans. Relates roles of Black theater to Black community. Discusses some of the organization's problems including lack of support from New Orleans community and expense of maintaining a touring company. As an originator of UMBRA, talks briefly about the magazine.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 25, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DESPRES, Leon (1908- )    RJB 159
City Alderman, Chicago. Examines the political machine in Chicago, its methods and raison d'Ítre. Discusses advances and defeats in race relations he has witnessed during his 13 years in city government. Discusses some of his civil rights ordinances and the resistance accorded them by Black and white councilmen.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 21, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

De VEAUX, Jacqueline (n.d.)    RJB 171
Student protest leader, Tuskegee Institute. Principal in De Veaux v. Tuskegee, which sought to have expelled student protesters readmitted to Tuskegee. Describes events leading to her involvement in campus dissent. Describes the program of student protest, including a 21-page mandate of issues. Discusses student- administration deliberations and expulsion of student body.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

DEVINE, Annie (1917- )    RJB 334
Member, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). One of three Black candidates to challenge election and seating of regular Mississippi Congressional delegation in 1965.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DeWOLF, Harold L. (1905-1986)    RJB 169
Dean, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D. C. Principal advisor to Martin Luther King Jr. while the latter was studying for the Ph.D. in systematic theology at Boston University. Discusses King as he knew him.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

DIAMOND, Dion T. (1941- )    RJB 77
Director, Neighborhood Services Project, Washington, D. C. Former field representative, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls early years in Petersburg, Virginia, and influence of the Reverend Wyatt T. Walker. Discusses early freedom rides through Mississippi, Alabama and other Southern states; and experiences as SNCC field representative. Describes life at Parchman, the Mississippi state penitentiary, where he was jailed for 49 days. Gives impression of James Farmer, his cellmate in Parchman. Discusses the August, 1969, seminar for civil rights leaders in Nashville, Tennessee, sponsored by the United States National Student Association (USNSA).
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


DICKERSON, Earl B. (ca. 1900- )    RJB 548
Attorney. Recalls early childhood experiences that stimulated his interest in civil rights. Discusses landmarks in his career including his work with NAACP in Chicago against restrictive covenants; chief counsel for plaintiff in Hansberry v. Lee; integrating Chicago and Illinois Bar Associations; preparing draft for petition, "We Charge Genocide," to be place before United Nations by DuBois.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DIGGS, Charles C., Jr. (1922- )    RJB 492
Representative (D.-Mich.), U. S. Congress. Discusses his visit to South Africa, including the plight of Black Africans and the relationship of the U. S. civil rights movement to their situation. Describes causes of the 1967 Detroit riot. Discusses the Black Panther Party. Looks at home rule for Washington, D. C. Gives information on the Inner City Business Improvement Forum, a Detroit group that provides service for Black entrepreneurship.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DITTO, Frank (1930- )    RJB 608
Director, East Side Voice of Independent Detroit. Recalls his personal reasons for becoming involved in grassroots organizing. Describes his organization's youth programs, especially a political education project that initiated a far-reaching "junior city government" model for students from Detroit ghettos.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DOCKERY, Richard L. (1924- )    RJB 180
Director, Southwest region, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses main problems unique to his area including relationship of NAACP to Mexican- American; investigation of atrocities against Black prison inmates in Arkansas; city governments in which officials serve gratis thus affording only the wealthy public office. Gives example of a typical work day.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DOWDY, George A. (n.d.)    RJB 692
Teacher, President, Memphis (Tenn.) Federation of Teachers, AFL/CIO. Gives a history of efforts to unionize teachers in Memphis during the 1960s. Describes the rationale behind and the impact of the "Black Mondays" tactic, in which Black parents and their children boycotted public schools on Mondays in protest of discriminatory school board practices. Discusses in detail a case in which a Black student and a white teacher were expelled for supporting this activity, and describes the union's role in reversing the board's decision.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DRAKE, St. Clair (1911-1990)    RJB 462
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Stanford University (California). Reminisces about 1920s Black student activism at Howard, Fisk, and Hampton universities, highlighting his involvement in strikes and protests at the latter against the condescending attitudes of white missionary benefactors toward Blacks. Identifies his early intellectual influences, especially that of noted Black social anthropologist Allison Davis. Recalls his exposure to and involvement with Quaker Friends, communist, and socialist organizations and causes in the 1930s. Traces his educational and professional pursuits: his teaching positions at historically Black and white colleges; graduate study at the University of Chicago; a stint in the integrated Merchant Marines; his sociological studies of Black life and race relations with Davis and Horace Cayton; and his experiences teaching, doing research, and studying in Europe and Africa. Also discusses his personal life and philosophies, his interracial marriage, and his involvement in urban renewal and housing integration efforts in the communities surrounding the University of Chicago. Recalls his involvement in the Young Turks movement within the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and later with the National Negro Congress. Details his role as an advisor to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), commenting on: Black/white dissensions within SNCC and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) over funding and the concept of Black Power, the demoralization and disillusionment of many SNCC leaders by the late 60s, SNCC's decision to abandon the South in 1966 and focus on urban ghettos, and SNCC's association with the Black Panthers. Analyzes the new directions of SNCC's Stokely Carmichael and Jim Forman. Discusses the ideological split between cultural nationalists such as Ron Karenga's organization and the Black Panthers. Discusses communist activism in the Chicago's Black communities and the influence and activities of that city's Black street gangs and Black Panther Party. Comments on: the impact of Martin Luther King's death on Blacks in the urban North, emerging Black leadership, Black Power (mentioning the outcome of the 1967 Black Power conference in Newark), Black separatism and militancy, the Third World concept, and the Black Studies movement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 210 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DREW. Steve (n.d.)    RJB 564
Student, University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Describes a violent student antiwar protest that occurred at the University of Maryland in response to President Nixon's decision to invade Cambodia. Gives his impressions of the campus climate and the level of student commitment to the antiwar effort.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUM, Lawrence C. (1942- )    RJB 440
Journalist, San Francisco Examiner. Recalls his experiences as a white student at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, during the desegregation crisis in 1957. Remembers attitudes and activities of fellow students, faculty members, and citizens at that time.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNBAR, Leslie (n.d.)   RJB 309
Executive Director, Field Foundation, New York. Former Executive Director, Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, Georgia. Chronicles the history of the Southern Regional Council and the roots of southern liberalism. Discusses his research and executive roles within the SRC, especially its Voter Education Project, from 1959 to 1965. Critiques national civil rights legislation from Eisenhower's 1957 bill to more comprehensive Civil Rights Act of 1964. Assesses the Kennedy administration's approach to civil rights and to the South in general. Offers comments on the transformation of the South as a result of the civil rights movement, the future of race relations, rising Black militancy, SRC's antiwar position, the student movement, and the effect of desegregation on young southern whites. Claims the civil rights movement is dead, and that the focus should turn to Black political and economic empowerment and eradicating poverty.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNCAN, Charles T. (1925- )    RJB 337
Corporation Counsel, Washington, D. C. As legal representative of the D. C. government, he discusses his office's relationship to Congress, enforcement of the closing of Resurrection City, role during the D. C. riots in 1968. Describes his role in Brown v. Board of Education, the school desegregation decision.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNCAN, John B. (n.d.)    RJB 518
Former Commissioner, Washington, D. C. First Black so appointed. Provides insights on the extent of racial segregation and inequality in the nation's capital from the 1930s to the 1960s. Describes the progressively intensifying involvement and approaches of various civic and civil rights groups in Washington, DC, in the struggle for Home Rule and political and fiscal independence. Describes his role as Commissioner of the District and his efforts to create an atmosphere for political change by increasing the employment of Blacks and women in city government. Discusses networking among Black professionals and civil servants with white federal and local officials.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNLAP, Nellie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 597
ASHFORD, Joyce

City organizer and Chairwoman respectively, Detroit (Michigan) Metropolitan Welfare rights Association. Program, services, memberships, and funding of organization are discussed. Also discussion of increased benefits and education incentives for Detroit welfare recipients.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 6, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURHAM, W. J. (Deceased, 12/22/70)    RJB 183
Civil rights attorney since 1930's. Discusses many of his cases, including Sweatt v. Painter, which allowed the admission of Negroes to the University of Texas Law School.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURR, Clifford Judkins (1899-1975)    RJB 398
White attorney active in Montgomery bus boycott. Describes immediate conditions that led to the boycott. Discusses trial of Mrs. Rosa Parks. Looks at effect of boycott on the community, bringing to light some humorous incidents. Discusses other civil rights cases in which he has been involved.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 74, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURR, Virginia (1903- )    RJB 397
Recalls her association with the late Mary McLeod Bethune and Mary Church Terrell. Discusses relationship and attitudes of Southern white aristocracy towards Blacks. Discusses the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott, and how Mrs. Rosa Parks became the symbol of resistance although others had disobeyed the segregated seating laws.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 69, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DYMALLY, Mervyn M. (1926- )    RJB 443
Senator, California State Legislator. Recalls his initiation into politics as campaign worker in the Black community for John F. Kennedy. Reviews his first campaign and election in California. Discusses his role in establishing a national conference of Black elected officials. Discusses educational aid to minority students' program of the Urban Affairs Institute.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

EALY, Jonathan (n.d.)    RJB 596
Director, United Pastors Association, Cleveland, Ohio. Gives origin, funding and purpose of organization--the training of ministers and lay people for active work in Black community. Discusses the lack of support from Black ministers, impact of the group on the community and Black theology.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

EDWARDS, G. Franklin (n.d.)    RJB 217
Professor of Sociology, Howard University. Discusses student unrest at Howard, including some of the student demands. Recalls circumstances surrounding dismissal of Nathan Hare. As a Sociologist, analyzes student unrest and Black awareness.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 27, 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ELDRIDGE, Tommy (1918- )    RJB 245
Sanitation worker and one of the organizers of the Municipal Employees Union during the garbage strike in Memphis, Tennessee. Voices strong support for union tactics and civil rights organization involvement as means of solidifying Black unity in Memphis and obtaining Black workers' demands for better pay and working conditions. Recalls Martin Luther King's last speech.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1968 Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ELIE, Lolie E. (n.d.)    RJB 680
Civil rights attorney, New Orleans, Louisiana. Recalls several life-threatening confrontations between civil rights activists and Louisiana law enforcement officials (many of whom he identifies as members of the KKK and other white supremacist groups). Discusses the workings of a civil rights law practice.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ERLICK, Rick (n.d.)    RJB 580
President, Community Government, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Discusses the involvement of Antioch's student government in 1960s political activism, specifically its role in a massive campus protest in response to the escalation of the Viet Nam War.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ERVIN, Sam (1896-1985)    RJB 676
Senator (D.-N.C.), U. S. Congress. Discusses sub-committee investigation of Army's civilian surveillance, how he became involved and results of the study. Gives reasons for opposing busing, Federal civil rights acts and legislation. Comments on defeat of President Nixon's nominees to the Supreme Court, Clement Haynsworth and Harold Carswell. Discusses "no-knock" provision of D. C. crime bill.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 29, 1971
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ESTRADA, Phillip (1935- )    RJB 143
Editor, Milwaukee Star News, a Black newspaper in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Chronicles his entry into and rise in the field of journalism. Explains Milwaukee's demographics and identifies some of the issues that concern the Black community. Defines his newspaper's mission and editorial policy, and comments on relations with community. Discusses perceived racism on the Milwaukee police force, complaints about police brutality and the lack of citizen recourse to a complaint review process. Comments on Mayor Henry Maier's leadership prior to and during the riot.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 12, 1968
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes (Difficult to listen to because of very loud background noise.)
Restrictions: No reproduction

EVANS, Ronald (n.d.)    RJB 383
Principal, P. S. 201, Harlem, New York. Expounds on the successful but tumultuous campaign waged by Black and Puerto Rican parents in Harlem to wrest decision-making authority over their local schools, particularly P.S. 201, from the white-dominated school board and teachers unions of New York City. Delineates the reasons for the antagonism between the parents and the predominantly white teachers/administrators at P.S. 201. Describes the sequence of events, community conditions, and controversies leading to his selection as principal of the school. Presents his plans for restructuring the school and repositioning it in the life of the community.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

EVERS, Myrlie (n.d.)    RJB 419
Widow of slain civil rights leader, Medgar Evers. Speaks of her late husband, including his devotion to the cause of civil rights; his faith in Mississippi and his assassination. Discusses political changes in Mississippi in the election of Black city and state officials. Looks at social changes in the area of school integration and police-community relations.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FAGAN, Maurice B. (1909- )    RJB 119
Executive Director, Fellowship Commission, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Discusses origin, structure, funding, and activities of the Commission, as well as race relations in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 9-10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FANION, Gerald (1932- )    RJB 250
Deputy Director, Tennessee Council on Human Relations, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses his involvement in the Memphis garbage workers' strike as chairman of publicity for the Community on the Move for Equality (COME). Describes a peaceful mass meeting and protest march in which activists from a broad spectrum of civil rights, community, and church groups were maced and beaten by police. Commends Martin Luther King, Jr., for responding to the striking workers' call for help when national National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) leadership refused to get involved. Describes some suspicious events surrounding King's assassination, including a Black policeman's covert role in tracking King's movements.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FARMER, James (1920- )    RJB 317
Formerly National Director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Recalls his service with Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Discusses origin of CORE, its leaders, programs, and relationship to FOR. Discusses the concept of nonviolence, its usage in the 1940's and 1960's. Gives account of student sit-in in Greensboro, North Caroling. Discusses CORE freedom rides in 1960's, the ensuing jail terms and attempts to raise bail money. Looks at philosophy and goals of CORE today.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FAUNTROY, Walter (1933- )    RJB 710
Non-voting Delegate (D.-D.C.), U. S. House of Representatives. Discusses three major influential factors in his life: growing up in segregated Washington, D. C.; theological training; Martin Luther King Jr. Attributes present involvement in politics as an outgrowth of civil rights activities, especially his role as Director, Washington Bureau, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses National Black Political Convention (1972) and alignment of Blacks with major political parties. Looks at Black Caucus, Congressional reaction, and dissension among Caucus members. Comments on home rule for District of Columbia and the Nixon Administration.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 23, 1973
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FEELINGS, Tom (n.d.) RJB 496
New York free-lance artist who concentrates on drawing and painting Black life in Africa and the United States. Recalls the beginning of his artistic career. Discusses responsibility of Black artist to his community and role in civil rights organizations. Comments on the activities of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in New York in the 1960's.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FERGUSON, Herman (1920- )    RJB 575
Minister of Education, Republic of New Africa. Co-defendant in alleged RAM conspiracy to assassinate Roy Wilkins (National Executive Director, NAACP) and Whitney Young (National Executive Director, National Urban League). Describes his personal transition from patriotic Negro American during World War II to Black nationalist militant by the 1960s. Talks at length about his personal association with and reverence for Malcolm X, with whom he helped establish the Organization for Afro-American Unity (OAAU), serving as Chairman of the OAAU's educational committee. Describes his role in the OAAU, particularly that of creating a "liberation school." Assesses the general impact of Malcolm X's death as well as its effect on the OAAU. Recounts his return to direct community action, establishing a gun club in a Black Detroit community. Describes the evolution, out of this club, of the provisional government of the Republic of New Afrika (RNA) in 1968. Details the organization's structure, key officials and cabinet members, and its Declaration of Independence. Describes efforts to politicize the community around the arrests and eventual convictions of RNA members on charges of anarchy, conspiracy to commit arson, conspiracy to assassinate civil rights and political leaders, and unlawful possession of firearms. Expounds at length on the Black nationalist/separatist philosophy and the purposes of Black education.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FIELDS, John (1922- )    RJB 111
Director, Community Relations Service, U. S. Conference of Mayors. National coordinator of the National Urban Coalition. Describes the origins, functions, and operations of the Urban Coalition and the Conference of Mayors. Recalls his association with Detroit's Interracial Committee, and its efforts to bring about equal opportunities in housing, education, and employment. Former Executive Director of President Kennedy's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities. Recalls the President's civil rights activities and attitudes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 100 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FITZHUGH, Howard N. (aka H. Naylor) (1909- )    RJB 382
Vice President, Pepsi-Cola Co. Former member, New Negro Alliance. Details the history and activities of the New Negro Alliance of the 1930s, an organization of Black professionals committed to eradicating discriminatory practices by Washington, DC businesses via peaceful civil protests and litigation. Describes his own efforts in support of the cause of Black business people, and advocates the importance of Blacks entering the American business mainstream as well as developing their own enterprises. Briefly mentions the Small Business Administration, particularly its shortcomings, in this regard.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 91 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FLETCHER, Arthur (1924- )   RJB 675
Assistant Secretary, U. S. Department of Labor. Recalls his civil rights activities. Gives local history of Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas), which culminated in 1954 Supreme Court school desegregation decision. Discusses Nixon Administration's commitment to equal employment. Traces process of enforcing contract compliance in employment. Discusses Philadelphia Plan.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: 1970, 1971
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FORMAN, Sidney (n.d.) RJB 703
Librarian, Teachers College, Columbia University. Member Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Discusses the Project, including how he became a member of its growing Board; original concept and plans and its eventual focus on oral history; value and use of Project material and oral history; dissemination of collected information.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: September 27, 1972
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FORTUNE, Hilda (n.d.)    RJB 37
College professor. Close associate of Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune. Staff member, National Urban League. Chronicles her educational and professional career. Discusses many of her Urban League activities in Baltimore. Recalls the League's fight against employment agencies in New York that exploited domestic workers.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: January 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 111 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANCOIS, Terry (1921- )    RJB 341
Member, City and Town Board of Supervisors, San Francisco, California. Former chairman, California chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Former civil rights lawyer. Recalls his military service years, particularly his experiences as an agitator against discrimination in the armed forces. Describes early stages of his legal career representing Blacks who had been refused service in public accommodations in San Francisco. Details his accomplishments and challenges as a member of the San Francisco Fair Employment Practices Commission, the California Democratic Party, and as president of the San Francisco NAACP from 1959 to 1962. Describes the activities of the San Francisco Freedom Movement, a coalition of civil rights, church, and community groups active in the Bay Area. Details his involvement with civil rights groups in the South, and in San Francisco with Dick Gregory aiding Black student activists who staged sit-ins and picket lines against discriminating businesses.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANKLIN, Harold (n.d.)    RJB 104
First Negro to enroll in Auburn University, Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANKLIN, John Hope (1915- )    RJB 702
Historian and author. Member, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Recalls aspects of his professional life, including why he became an historian; development of interest in Black history; writing of From Slavery to Freedom; experiences as a teacher at Howard University, Brooklyn College, University of Chicago. Assesses value of Black studies programs in colleges and universities.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: August 9, 1972
Format: Cassette Tape
Tape length: 3 hours
Restrictions: No reproduction

FREEMAN, Orville (1918- )    RJB 369
Secretary of Agriculture during the Johnson Administration. Discusses some of the problems of small Black farmers in the South and special programs administered through his Department to aid them. Discusses equal employment opportunities in his division of government. Recalls demands made by members of Poor People's Campaign of the Agriculture Department.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRIELDMAN, Peter (n.d.)    RJB 577
Member of the Yale University Strike Committee. Discusses the need for "revolution" in the United States, his reformist activities, effect of student strike at Yale on other universities.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GALAMISON, Milton (1923-1988))    RJB 538
A leader of the 1964 public school strike in New York City in which an estimated half million people boycotted classes February 3rd. Sketches a history of school desegregation efforts in New York during the 1950's and 1960's. Describes the collective aid and support given the boycott by major civil rights organizations.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GANS, Curtis (1937- ) RJB 41
Former activist with the National Student Association Congress in the 1960's. Discusses civil rights activities of this organization and student protest in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 10, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GANT, Danny (1933- )    RJB 75
Director, Target City Baltimore Chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Defines the concept "target city." Gives the approach used for the program, problems encountered, and progress to date. Also discusses his CORE field work in other areas of the country.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 13, 1967
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GARMAN, Betty (1939- )    RJB 152
Associated with The New Thing Art and Architecture Center, Washington, D. C. Former fund raiser and staff member, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Recalls her introduction to student politics as a sophomore at Skidmore College in 1958 through the National Student Association (NSA); describes at length the jobs and events that transformed her from a naive white middle- class suburbanite majoring in psychology to the activist volunteer who joined SNCC in the Spring of 1964. Discusses the fund raising and information gathering activities she was responsible for in Greenwood, Mississippi during the Freedom Summer Project; provides examples of police and citizen harassment; comments on the tensions which developed between northern white students and local Black citizens; theorizes about the motivations of the white volunteers. Recounts her participation in the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party's (MFDC) challenge to be seated at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City; contests the "official" version of events stated by Joe Rauh and other civil rights leaders regarding who negotiated the compromise that was offered to the MFDC by the Credentials Committee and the squelching of a minority report which challenged the compromise. Discusses her fund raising job in the Atlanta office; describes its national scope, the role of the Friends of SNCC and the kinds of activities around which SNCC raised funds; attempts to clarify SNCC's financial arrangement with the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC). Recalls the SNCC Executive Committee meeting in which plans for participation in the Selma March were discussed; identifies the issues that SNCC raised in opposition to the March, as well as the positions of various SNCC personnel including Silas Norman, Alabama Project Director, and John Lewis, then Chairman of SNCC. Analyzes the significance of the televising of the March and the brutality of the Alabama Troopers, the reaction of SNCC staff and the event's subsequent impact on fund raising efforts, as well as other long- term outcomes. Comments briefly on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the failure of the Justice Department to implement the Act initially. Recalls history of SNCC's organizational restructuring and suggests some reasons why Stokely Carmichael succeeded John Lewis as Chairman of SNCC. Digresses to describe Carmichael's work with the Lowndes County, Alabama, Freedom Movement and the Panther Party, helping Black farmers organize around the election of representatives to the Agricultural Stabilization Committees (ASC), an arm of the Department of Agriculture. Details significance of the ASCs, the importance of the elections, and the reasons why SNCC became involved in helping to develop rural cooperatives for Black farmers. Discusses SNCC's decision making process in determining which communities to work in and organize. Comments throughout on SNCC's relationship with SCLC and Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 4, 1967
Format: Transcript, 22 pages (incomplete); cassette tape of entire interview
Tape length: 135 minutes
Restrictions: Standard for transcript; no reproduction of tape.

GASPERETTI, Elio (n.d.) RJB 643
Curriculum specialist in the public schools, Washington, D. C. Discusses his efforts to develop and introduce Black studies curricular materials into the District of Columbia public schools, particularly the resistance to and lack of interest in these materials from both the school board and teachers.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIBBS, Alma (n.d.)    RJB 616
Member, Town Council, Dedron, Virginia, a rural predominately Black area of about 300 inhabitants. Discusses some of her legislative goals including refurbishing the downtown district, adequate street lighting, a town-wide water system. Discusses sources of income in her area and the segregated school system.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIBSON, John L. (1936- )    RJB 176
Student protester in Georgia during the early 1960's. Discusses the protest movement in Atlanta, "An Appeal for Human Rights," and his relationship with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: April 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GILMORE, Keith (n.d.)    RJB 645
Director, Watts Extended Health and Family Planning Service, Los Angeles, California. Discusses the need for his organization, its philosophy of family planning, funding and services.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GILMORE, Thomas (1941- )    RJB 275
Staff worker, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Greene County, Alabama. Discusses voter registration project in his area and the tactics used by whites to impede the program. Recalls the defeat of his all-Black slate for local offices attributed to the 120 per cent vote of the white populace.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIVENS, Cornelius (1931- )    RJB 223
Representative of the Grass-Rooters Interested in Poverty Elimination (GRIPE). Recalls technical assistance his organization gave the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in the Poor People's Campaign. Describes organizational problems encountered by various regional groups in Resurrection City. Discusses his plans for a national multi-ethnic coalition of poor people.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GLICKSTEIN, Howard (1929- )    RJB 490
Staff Director-designate, U. S. Civil rights Commission. Attorney. Discusses civil rights division of U. S. Department of Justice under the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations. Recalls voting rights cases handled by the division and the origin and development of the Voting rights Act of 1965. suggests additional areas for civil rights legislation. Examines various goals of the Civil Rights Commission.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GOFF, Regina (n.d.)    RJB 452
Administrator, Programs for the Disadvantaged, U. S. Office of Education. Discusses handling of complaints. Discusses most successful programs. Describes local community agency cooperation with Federal government. Comments on ways to bring disadvantaged into the mainstream.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: July 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GOMILLION, Charles G. (1900- )    RJB 21 Plaintiff in Gomillion v. Lightfoot, the Tuskegee gerrymandering case which eliminated all but 10 Black voters from the city limits. He discusses this case, as well as activities of the Tuskegee Civic Association in school desegregation and voter registration.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GOODLETT, Carleton B. (1914- )    RJB 348
Editor-Publisher, Sun-Reporter, weekly Black newspaper in San Francisco. California gubernatorial candidate, 1966. Discusses paper's editorial policy of fair and equal employment for all minorities of the community, in government, business and commerce. As an active member of world peace movement, discusses, the newspaper's position on Vietnam.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRAHAM, Frank P. (1886-1972)    RJB 373
Former president, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: January 30, 1969
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRANGER, Lester B. (1896-1976) RJB 190
Executive Director, National Urban League, 1941-61. Discusses origin and purpose of League. Recalls conditions at League when he became chief including primary focus, activities, structure, and funding. Discusses growth and development under his leadership. Articulates social services offered by League. Recalls how his investigation of segregation and discrimination in the Navy led to a change in its official policy. Discusses the usage of executive and legislative powers by Presidents Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and Kennedy, to affect the Negro either positively or negatively.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 84 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard.

GRAY, Fred (n.d.)    RJB 101
Civil rights attorney. Reviews many of the significant civil rights cases with which he was involved. Discusses his campaign for the Alabama state legislature.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: December 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRAY, Jesse (1923- )    RJB 10
Leader of rent strike in New York. Discusses housing condition for Blacks in Harlem and two legislative tools--Rooming House Bill, Rent Strike Law--applied to relieve these conditions.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREAVES, William (n.d.)    RJB 509
Executive producer and co-host, "Black Journal." Provides insights on how the public television program "Black Journal" was conceived, and discusses the Black community's responses to it. Describes the "coup" which brought him to the show, a protest staged by "Black Journal" staff against the show's having a white executive producer; and many other battles waged with network, business, and foundation executives to increase the amount of funding and air time devoted to that show and other Black-oriented programming in general.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1969
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREELEY, Dana (n.d.)    RJB 95
President, Unitarian-Universalist Association of North America. Explores changing approach of Unitarian Church towards race relations. Discusses advent and effect of Black caucus movement within Unitarian Church.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREEN, Edith (1910-1987) RJB 375
Representative (D.-Oregon), U. S. Congress. Chairman of the Education and Labor Subcommittee on Higher Education in the House of Representatives. Discusses "Green Amendment" to War on Poverty legislation, which made area elected officials more responsible for the administration of poverty funds. Comments on college unrest, aid to higher education and curriculum development. Recalls her supportive role of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) in the challenge of the "regular" Democrats at the 1964 national convention.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREEN, Ernest (1940- )    RJB 13
One of the original "Little Rock (Arkansas) Nine." Discusses the integration of Central High School in 1957. Also discusses his position with Worker's Defense League's Joint Apprenticeship Program, which concentrates on getting minority group members in skilled trade and craft unions.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GREENBERG, Jack (n.d.)    RJB 514
Director and chief counsel, NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Describes the types of cases that are defended or prosecuted by the organization.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREENE, Bill (n.d.)    RJB 444
Assemblyman, California Legislature, 53rd assembly district. Former member, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discusses his initiation into local California politics. Also discusses his campaign issues and some of his other legislative interests, which include school decentralization and tax reform. Recalls his experiences with CORE in the South.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFIN, John Howard (1920-1980)    RJB 212
Author of Black Like Me. Recalls his childhood in the South. Discusses his school years and war experiences in France which caused him to question his ideas on race. Recalls his life as a Black man.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: June 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 90 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFIN, Noah Webster (1896- )    RJB 438
Director, Region 1 (Far West and Hawaii), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). A leader in the fight for equalization of Black teachers' salaries in the South during the 1940's.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 1, 1969
Format: Transcript, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFITH, Mahlon (1919- )    RJB 94
Tennessee State Department of Personnel. Discusses his early efforts fighting discrimination in the postal service as president of the National Alliance of Postal employees. Relates aspects of his service on the Nashville National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Labor and Industry Committee (1960 to 1964), negotiating greater opportunities for Blacks in both the local private and government sectors. Provides examples of his efforts to help more Blacks successfully pass the civil service tests and obtain state employment. Describes his involvement in several organizations focusing on housing, health, and education of Black Tennesseans. Explains the objectives of the Tennessee Voters Council, a statewide group aimed at increasing Black political strength in the state. Expresses optimism about the improved employment and social conditions and relationships in the South as a result of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFITHS, G. H. (n.d.)    RJB 716
Member, Ford Foundation staff and former Secretary-Treasurer, Fund for the Advancement of Education. Discusses objectives of the Fund and its reasons for establishing the Civil Rights Documentation Project. Relates his impressions of the Project's value as seen from his perspective as a member of the Policy Committee set up to direct the Project's activities.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1973
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GROPPI, Father James (1930-1985)    RJB 145
Catholic priest who led demonstrations supporting open housing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Discusses these protest marches, the racial climate in Milwaukee, and his role as advisor to the Youth Council (Commandos) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon Date: February 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 96 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GUNN, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 80
Attorney. Discusses the public school situation in Cleveland, Ohio, in terms of busing and de facto segregation. Speculates on the future of Cleveland with Carl Stokes as mayor.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 15, 1967
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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