RALPH J. BUNCHE ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION (H-L)



HALEY, Frank (1933- )    RJB 120
Civil rights worker in Philadelphia and Chester, Pennsylvania. Member, Young Militants, a group that "polices policemen" in the Black community and during demonstrations to eliminate police brutality. Recalls demonstrations in Chester, and the treatment of protesters by police during arrest and jailing.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



HALEY, Oretha Castle (n.d.)    RJB 682
One of the founders and leaders, New Orleans chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Currently working with New Orleans chapter Urban League. Describes the conditions that led to the formation of CORE's New Orleans chapter in 1960 and to the later expulsion of the its white members in 1964. Details the re-organized chapter's return to high-profile protest activities, culminating in a Black boycott of the city's renowned Mardi Gras parade.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALEY, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 470
Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Details the circumstances behind CORE's creation. Traces CORE's transition to a mostly Black organization by the mid-1960s under Floyd McKissick's leadership, and its movement away from nonviolence and integrationism (and from its traditional white northern liberal funding base). Discusses his own role as a "troubleshooter" in the organization and describes the efforts of CORE strategists to make inroads into the Deep South to organize the Freedom Rides. Describes CORE's relationship with the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO). Discusses the ideological conflicts between Black moderates and "Black consciousness" advocates.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALL, Carsie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 685
YOUNG, Jack H.
Civil rights attorney in Mississippi. Recall their early work with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and later with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) during the Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964. Describe their experiences defending civil rights activists in the South as "on- the-job training" in civil rights law, and discuss aspects of legal procedures employed in their cases. Contend that the burden of paying excessive cash bonds to release jailed civil rights workers "broke" CORE.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALLINAN, Terrance (n.d.)    RJB 425
Civil rights and civil liberties attorney in San Francisco. Reflects on his personal journey from youthful suburbanite involved in the Mississippi Freedom Summer to seasoned attorney representing "hippies" and radical activists in the San Francisco Bay Area. Discusses his many arrests for participation in civil disobedience activities, which led to his being denied admittance to the California Bar. Describes his efforts to overturn that decision before the state Supreme Court, which ruled that participation in nonviolent demonstrations for peace and civil rights cannot be a basis for keeping a person out of the licensed professions. Suggests that the massive crackdowns marshalled by the state against protesters resulted in many young whites "turning off" from the civil rights movement and "turning on" to the vapid drug culture of Haight-Ashbury. Describes the objectives and activities of the DuBois Club, a multiracial, non-aligned organization of college socialists in the San Francisco area. Discusses his involvement as spokesperson for various groups of disenfranchised citizens. Expresses support for Black self- determination and leadership in the civil rights movement as well as for democratically implemented Black separatist and Black power initiatives.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAMER, Fannie Lou (1917-1977)    RJB 282
Civil rights activist in Mississippi. Recalls childhood as member of a poor sharecropper's family. Discusses voter registration in Mississippi: her attempt to become a registered voter; the reaction of her community to this effort; her role as a voter registration worker for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Relates her opposition to the compromise made to the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic Convention in 1964.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAMILTON, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 414
Chairman, political science department, Roosevelt University, Chicago. Co-author Black Power. Discusses Black consciousness in universities, including differences between white and Black student revolts; administrative and structural changes in school policies that affect Black students; the responses of white faculty and alumni to Black consciousness.
Interviewer: Erwin Knoll
Date: May 27, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HANNAH, John (n.d.)    RJB 630
First chairman, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Recalls his appointment to the position by President Eisenhower. Discusses the Commission's purpose. Looks at criticisms levied against the Commission. Discusses the relationship of successive Presidents to the Commission.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: April 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HANSON, Agnes (n.d.)    RJB 355
Elected parent-representative, governing board, Ocean Hill- Brownsville School Demonstration Project, New York City. Discusses her efforts to successfully mobilize and organize Black parents around the objective of community control of their local public schools in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville section of New York City, despite strong resistance from the city school board, the teachers' union, and the media. Cites examples of how community control improved the climate and effectiveness of the schools for Black students and their parents as well as improved relations between students, parents, and teachers. Correlates her northern, urban community's efforts with those of Black civil rights activists in the South to obtain educational equality.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 33, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARDING, Bertram M. (n.d.)    RJB 365
Director, U. S. Office of Economic Opportunity. Describes the circumstances of his entry into antipoverty agency administration, and details various aspects of program bureaucracy (technical definitions of poverty, specific programs such as Job Corps and VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) and their objectives, and program implementation). Discusses the pros and cons of nongovernment personnel (community) involvement in program policy making. Contrasts poor people's expectations and perceptions of the "War on Poverty" with the level of funding these programs receive. Speculates on the incoming Nixon administration commitment to Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) programs in progress.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: January 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARDING, Vincent (1931- )    RJB 289
Professor. Director, Martin Luther King Memorial Center, Atlanta, Georgia. Briefly chronicles his personal history and academic pursuits to date. Recounts his efforts through the Mennonite Church to reconcile the Black and white races in southern trouble spots. Looks at the effect of Martin Luther King Jr. on the civil rights movement. Discusses purposes and plans of Martin Luther King Memorial Center.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: August 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARE, Nathan (n.d.)    RJB 340
Director, Black Studies Curriculum, San Francisco State College. Discusses his role, as a professor, in the rise of student activism at Howard University and the Black Power movement on that campus during the 1960s. Relates the repression he encountered from the Howard administration for his radical racial and political views, particularly those regarding his concept of the nature and responsibility of a "Black university."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Michael (n.d.)    RJB 215
President, 1967-68 Freshman class, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses role of Black university and student unrest at Howard.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Patricia Roberts (1924-1985)    RJB 235
Former Ambassador to Luxembourg. Professor of Law, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Briefly chronicles phases of her education and career, including her civil rights activities.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Ruth Bates (1919- )    RJB 100/700
Executive Director, Human Relations Council, District of Columbia. Discusses activities of her organization in the fields of discriminatory housing, biased employment, and police-community relations.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Robert Wright
Dates: December 7, 1967; March 16, 1971
Format: Transcripts, 44 pages; 36 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Tyrone (n.d.)    RJB 677
Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Chairman of its Information Committee. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


HARRIS, William H. (n.d.)    RJB 359
Principal, I. S. 271, Ocean Hill-Brownsville Experimental School Project, New York. Recounts his career as a teacher and administrator in New York City public schools, and depicts the circumstances leading to his selection as a principal in two junior high schools in the decentralized Ocean Hill-Brownsville (OHB) school district. Elaborates on the problems he encountered from white teachers, teacher/administrator unions, and central school board leaders resistant to the demonstration district specifically and the concept of Black community control in general. Details his efforts to recruit supportive, culturally aware, and community- sensitive teachers, and the disputes over these teachers' contracts and certification that eventually led to legal action being taken against the OHB district's community-appointed governing board and the closing of its schools. Describes the efforts and level of commitment of Black and Puerto Rican district parents in support of continuing the project, improving the quality of education in their neighborhood schools, and keeping the schools open.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


HARVILLE, Agatha (n.d.)    RJB 474
Veteran civil rights activist with Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Medical Committee on Human Rights, and the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) in Selma, Alabama. Presently director of day care centers, Selma, Alabama. Gives eyewitness account of the events of "Bloody Sunday" in which civil rights activists attempted to march across the Edmund Patterson Bridge to Montgomery (Alabama) and were met by brutal police and white citizen opposition. Recalls white medical personnel's callousness toward those injured during that march. Describes the widespread retribution against local Blacks who were involved in civil rights activities, and the efforts of Operation Freedom to help those who lost their jobs, homes, and land as a result. Discusses Black involvement in politics in Dallas County through the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Voters League, the Free Voters Organization, and the Progressive Movement for Human Rights; and her own work organizing day care centers and farmers' cooperatives through SHAPE (Self-Help Against Poverty Everywhere). Contends the local Economic Opportunity Board was set up to purposely disrupt and coopt indigenous Black community improvement programs in Dallas County. Discusses concerns about the role and actions of white civil rights workers Shirley Mesher of the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) and Don Jelinek of the Southern Rural Research Project.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, James (n.d.)    RJB 478
Former vice president, Demopolis (Alabama) Civic League, a Black organization geared towards gaining "first-class citizenship for all our people." Gives history of group. Discusses protest demonstrations organized by the League with aid of Southern Christian Leadership Conference, that brought little or no change in conditions for local Blacks. Recalls problems of voter registration. Discusses advantages of white participation in civil rights activities.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, John (n.d.)    RJB 477
Former civil rights activist, Demopolis, Alabama. Discusses unsuccessful attempts to integrate public facilities including schools in Demopolis 1964-65; boycott of Black high school in effort to remove Black principal who supported segregated education; mass demonstrations with aid of Southern Christian Leadership Conference; job discrimination.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, Kenneth (n.d.)    RJB 476
Former principal, Morgan Community School, Washington, D. C. Recalls early problems at Morgan. Discusses innovative changes at the school and adaptation difficulties. Describes some of his theories of education.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAWKINS, Augustus F. (1907- ) RJB 376
Representative (D.-California), U. S. Congress. Discusses history of Title VII (equal employment) of 1964 Civil Rights Act. Looks at anti-poverty programs, and the relationship of that program to the Watts riot, 1965. Discusses operation of Congressional committees.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAYLING, Robert Bagner (n.d.) RJB 28
Former leader, St. Augustine, Florida, civil rights movement. Discusses mass protest demonstrations that occurred in his city in 1963-64. Reviews events leading to demonstrations, the involvements of Martin Luther King and the then Vice-President, Lyndon B. Johnson.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 16, 1967
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HECHINGER, John W. (1920- )    RJB 336
Chairman, City Council, District of Columbia. Discusses the Federal government-D. C. government relationship. Describes some of Washington's problems in the areas of housing, schools, commuter taxes, and police-community relations.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEDGEMAN, Anna Arnold (1899- )    RJB 9/304
Member, executive staff, National Council of Churches. Discusses her early years as a staff associate of the YWCA. Recalls establishing a union primarily for Black female laundry workers in the New York area about 1929. Discusses duties as consultant on racial problems for city of New York; as executive director, National Council, Fair Employment Practices Committee; with Federal Security Agency; as assistant to the Mayor of New York City; on the Commission on Religion and Race, National Council of Churches. Describes travel in India and Africa. Comments on desegregation of facilities in Washington, D. C. Describes interest in Black Muslims; organization of March on Washington; organization of Poor People's Campaign. Comments on rebellion on college campuses; interest in Black studies; concept of Black Power; future of nonviolence. Discusses educational problems in New York City and concept of community control. Comments on rise of Black capitalism. Describes role of Black middle-class. Assesses civil rights movement at present and comments on role played by white liberals.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Robert E. Martin
Dates: July 25, 1967; August 27, 1968
Format: Transcripts, 37 pages; 98 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEFFERNAN, Elaine (n.d.)    RJB 457
Former administrative assistant to Peter Libassi, Office for Civil Rights, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Discusses Title VI of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; its origin purpose, opposition, and enforcement procedures.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 56 page; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEIGHT, Dorothy (1913- )    RJB 536
President, National Council of Negro Women. Director, Office of Racial Justice, YWCA. Discusses the Council; its origin, purpose, programs, funding, and relationship to the YWCA.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENDERSON, Lloyd (n.d.)    RJB 458
Chief, Educational Branch, Office for Civil Rights, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Describes the difference in educational discrimination in the North and South. Details the efforts of southern congressmen, especially Sen. Stennis of Mississippi, to block and defy civil rights laws and rulings. Identifies Alabama as the state most resistant to desegregation efforts. Explains the difficulties in attacking de facto school segregation in the North ("making a southern case" in northern school districts). Discusses federal efforts to obtain state compliance with Title VI by leveraging negotiations with federal funding stipulations. Praises decision to transfer responsibility for enforcing Title VI from Justice Department to HEW. Describes changes in government's stance on desegregation during the Nixon administration, especially its focus on contesting the legality of calls for all-Black dormitories and Black Studies departments at predominantly white colleges.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENDERSON, Mae (n.d.)    RJB 211
Student, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. Relates some of the social, cultural, and academic problems of the 40 Black students at the school. Discusses the objectives and projects of the Negro Affairs Committee, a Black awareness group at Carleton.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: June 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Aaron (1922- )    RJB 326
Chairman, Mississippi chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Co-chairman Mississippi committee seeking election of 1968 Humphrey-Muskie ticket. Relates history of his involvement with the Mississippi NAACP and his close friendships with state field secretary Medgar Evers and Evers's brother, Charles. Discusses his many arrests on trumped-up charges due to his civil rights activities. Recalls the work of Bob Moses and the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO) in bringing white college students to Mississippi during the Freedom Summer. Reflects on the circumstances leading to the murders of Goodman, Swerner, and Chaney. Cites the reasons behind COFO's creation and demise after the NAACP pulled out of Mississippi due to the excessive expenses of mounting a civil rights offensive in that state. Describes his campaign for Mississippi governor as part of the Freedom Vote project of 1963 as more a bid to increase Black voter registration than a serious effort to unseat the incumbent politicians. Comments on the activities and role of his white running mate for lieutenant governor, Rev. Edwin King. Discusses national Democratic Party politics and the presidential campaign of 1964. Expounds on the idea of a biracial, integrated society.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Anthony R. (1938- )    RJB 225
Deputy national coordinator, Poor People's Campaign. Describes the myriad logistical considerations delegated to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's Washington, D.C. headquarters staff in planning and executing the Resurrection City component of the 1968 March on Washington: food, housing, communications, utilities, sanitation, etc. Critiques SCLC's decision-making process and cites its efforts to involve more local (Washington, DC) Blacks in the encampment project. Discusses the impact of Martin Luther King's death on the march and on SCLC. Recalls a police raid at SCLC headquarters.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 15, 1968
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Clifton (1939- )    RJB 112
Former civil rights activist with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Civic Interest Group (Baltimore, MD) and Northern Student Movement. Recalls his protest activities and projects with these organizations, including the rise of SNCC and the end of the Northern Student Movement. Discusses efforts of Morgan State College students to desegregate public facilities in Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 153 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Milton (n.d.)    RJB 699
President, Republic of New Africa (RNA). Recalls some events in his life that led to his embracing a separatist philosophy; including his experience as member of Detroit City Council; organization of the Freedom Now Party and its role in state elections; organization of the Malcolm X Society; organization of Republic of New Africa from Malcolm X Society in 1968. Discusses the philosophy of RNA, its request for five southern states for Blacks and the split in the organization over ideological differences.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Theodore (n.d.)    RJB 485
Former leader, Youth Council, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Jackson, Mississippi. Outlines the Mississippi NAACP Youth Council's positions and activities under the guidance of state field secretary Medgar Evers. Describes members' reactions to Evers' assassination in 1963, and the atmosphere of racial tension in Jackson after Evers' death. Shares his views on the future of race relations in the state, signs of Black progress in employment and housing, student protests against the war in Viet Nam, the significance of the Black Power movement, and the philosophies of Malcolm X.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HERNANDEZ, Aileen C. (1926- )    RJB 162
Former member, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Explains why she believed the Commission was ineffective. Discusses minority group unemployment, including unique methods of reaching the hard-core unemployed; Plans for Progress Program under the Kennedy Administration, in which over 300 companies were to actively engage in the recruitment of minority groups; unions' role in Black employment.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: March 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HICKS, Jennifer Olivia (1951- )    RJB 688
Student, Jackson State College, Jackson, Mississippi. Explains how the shooting of Black antiwar protesters at Jackson State opened her eyes to the need for Blacks to speak out against social injustice and oppression. Discusses the letter of protest she wrote to the governor that was published in the local newspapers. Describes the mood and events on campus on the day of the shooting.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HICKS, Robert (n.d.) RJB 473
Vice President, Voter's League, Bogalusa, Louisiana. One of the founders of Deacons for Defense.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HILL, Norman (n.d.) RJB 532
Associate Executive Director, A. Philip Randolph Institute. Formerly, staff coordinator, 1963 March on Washington. Discusses the March, especially how he became involved; responsibilities as staff coordinator; changing purpose of March; role of the "six major" civil rights groups; value of the project.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HILLIARD, Kenneth (n.d.)    RJB 587
Student, University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Coordinator, Intensive Education Development Program, a project to aid students with poor skills. Discusses structure and goals of program. Comments on being Black in a white school, irrelevancy of Black Student Union to total Black population; student protest.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HIRSCHKOPF, Philip (n.d.) RJB 363
Civil rights-civil liberties attorney in Virginia. Recalls organization of Law Students Civil Rights Research Council, in which law student interns worked in the South on civil rights cases. Discusses his activities with the Chase Fund on Teachers Rights, which is concerned with teacher discrimination litigation. Gives his ideas on why Blacks cannot and do not get justice in American courts.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 6, 1969
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOBSON, Julius (1922-1977) RJB 4/322
Plaintiff in Hobson v. Hansen, which ruled against de facto segregation in Washington, D. C. schools. Discusses his active participation in breaking the segregated hiring practices in D. C.'s business and commercial district. Also discusses his bankruptcy campaign method by which the poor can alleviate some of their debt.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Erwin Knoll
Dates: July 3, 1967; May 17, 1968
Format: Transcripts, 47 pages; 39 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction at any time in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc., without permission of the oral author's heirs, legal representatives, or assigns.

HODGES, Luther H. (1898-1979)     RJB 372
Former governor, North Carolina. Former Secretary of Commerce. Discusses his position on integration during the 1950's, including a local law under which the state gave tuition grants to parents who did not wish to send their children to integrated schools. Recalls roles of some southern governors who attempted to have Federal troops removed from Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957 school crisis.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: January 30, 1969
Format: Transcript, 39, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOFFMAN, Rufus (n.d.) RJB 195
Teacher, Bullock County, Alabama. Treasurer, Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA), Union Springs, Alabama. Describes the work of antipoverty agencies in Bullock County, Alabama. Reports the findings of his own investigations into the inequities fostered by that county's dual school system, and relates his experiences with the covertly and overtly racist tactics used by whites to discourage Blacks from sending their children to integrated schools once enrolled. Describes his own and other Blacks' challenges to voter registration irregularities aimed at maintaining white advantage in the county.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: June 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions:  Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

HOLLAND, Arthur J. (1918- )    RJB 3
Former mayor, Trenton, New Jersey (1959-66) who attributes his defeat primarily to his family's move to a low income predominately Black neighborhood.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: June 30 1967
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HOLLOWELL, Donald L. (ca. 1916- )    RJB 187
Civil rights attorney. Discusses some of his cases, including one involving Martin Luther King Jr. and the sit-in trials.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOLMAN, M. Carl (1919-1988) RJB 52
Deputy Staff director, U. S. Commission Civil Rights. Discusses Atlanta student movement of early 1960's and some civil rights activities of Martin Luther King in Atlanta. Also reveals efforts of Civil Rights Commission to persuade Federal government to cancel subsidization of segregation and discrimination.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HORNE, Frank S. (1899-deceased, n.d.) RJB 307
Expert on housing problems, New York City. Discusses the efforts of Blacks to enter government service and impact public policy formulation from the New Deal to the Affirmative Action eras, particularly in the areas of housing equity and urban development. Reflects at length on the influential roles of Mary McLeod Bethune and the so-called "Black Cabinet" of the FDR years, and of Robert Weaver of FHA and HUD. Comments on contemporary race relations in the urban North.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUCK, Thomas E. (n.d.) RJB 230
Member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Western regional coordinator, Poor People's Campaign. Describes his duties in helping organize the Poor People's Campaign march on Washington, D.C., specifically his role in getting minorities other than Blacks--notably, Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and poor whites- -involved. Discusses an early organizing meeting sponsored by SCLC in which it was decided that the march would focus on the economic issue of national poverty rather than on racial issues. Details the management of bus caravans of participants from the West and describes the many logistical and ideological conflicts that arose between the diverse racial and ethnic groups once marchers arrived in the capitol. Discusses the differences in organizing styles among the various groups. Explains the concept of the Poor People's Embassy.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUSER, Daniel (n.d.) RJB 639
Founder and former president, Autauga County (Prattville) Alabama Movement. Active with Alabama Action Committee in Montgomery Alabama. Describes local grassroots organizing against racist government and voting restrictions in Prattville, Alabama. Discusses the change in tactics employed by his association after 1967, when Stokely Carmichael and Rap Brown of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) came in to help them organize around more militant strategies. Attributes the Alabama Action Council's self-defense stance to the cessation of whites' harassment of its members. Discusses background of law suit brought by the Alabama National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) against the AAC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 37, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUSER, George M. (n.d.)    RJB 39
One of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and its national secretary from 1944 to mid-1950's. Traces the origin and development of that organization, including some of its most outstanding projects.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HOWARD, Mrs. Wyona (n.d.)    RJB 605
Director, Grass Roots Organization Workers (GROW), an inner-city community maintenance program in Detroit, Michigan. Discusses the goals, activities, funding, and successes of GROW, which is composed of residents of 120 city blocks.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOWE, Harold, II (n.d.) RJB 344
U. S. Commissioner of Education. Reviews elements of "Federal School Desegregation Policies." Discusses the "Free Choice Plan" and other means designed to eliminate dual school systems "with all deliberate speed."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HUITT, Ralph K. (n.d.)    RJB 456
Former assistant secretary, Health, Education and Welfare for Legislation and Congressional Relations. Describes the legislative activities of HEW staffers in getting the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1967 passed, particularly his own role as HEW congressional liaison. Identifies several southern and Republican congressmen as especially resistant to Title VI (the school desegregation section) of the Act, and as lobbying to shift the focus of legislative action to de facto segregation of the North and away from the dual systems of education in the South. Explains why enforcement of Title VI was moved out of the Justice Department and into the Office of Education. Describes an impromptu meeting between HEW officials and Poor People's March activists. Discusses LBJ's political ambitions and achievements in the context of his southern background.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Tape length:
Restrictions: Standard

HULETT, John (n.d.)    RJB 200
Director, Lowndes County Community Action Program. Member, Lowndes County Christian Movement for Human Rights and Cooperative, Lowndes County Co-op in Alabama. Discusses activities of the Christian Movement in the areas of voter registration, employment, and training programs. Recalls origin of Freedom Party, its problems with recognition and intimidation by whites. Explains why the Party's candidates lost 1966 elections even though the county was 81 per cent Black. Recalls methods used by whites to circumvent integrated education. Discusses white economic power structure in the county and its effect on Blacks.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 30, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

HUMPHREY, Hubert H. (1911-1978)    RJB 718
Senator (D.-Minnesota), U. S. Congress. Former Vice President of the United States. Discusses the influences that stimulated his commitment to the civil rights cause. Chronicles programs he initiated as Mayor of Minneapolis which changed the city's reputation from that of one of the most anti-Semitic in the United States to that of a model municipality for guaranteeing equal protection under the law to all of its citizens. Recounts other personal, political and legislative endeavors that he participated in to insure the civil rights of minorities and passage of civil rights legislation. Briefly reviews Lyndon Johnson's key role in this struggle.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: August 3, 1973
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 60 minutes
Restrictions: No reproductions

HURLEY, Ruby (n.d.)    RJB 122
Director, Southeast Regional Office, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses her career with the NAACP. Also relates her role in finding a concert site for Marian Anderson after she was barred from Constitution Hall in Washington. Discusses her investigation of the Emmett Till murder and lynchings in Mississippi.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACK, Hulan (n.d.)    RJB 627
Member, New York State Assembly. Former president, Manhattan Borough. Reflects on highlights of his tenure as the first Black president of the Borough of Manhattan in the 40s and 50s. Recalls the circumstances behind his selection as a candidate for the office, identifies other key players in New York City politics, and details some of his more memorable achievements. Debates the merits, for Blacks, of machine politics over liberal reform politics, citing examples of greater progress for Blacks during the former era. Discusses the demise of Adam Clayton Powell and Charles Rangel's campaign to take Powell's seat. Denounces the contemporary drug and crime problem in Harlem. Assesses Black involvement in Democratic Party politics in New York City and the state. Stresses the importance of the Black vote and advocates Black loyalty to the two-party system and to working shrewdly within that system.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, Ellen (n.d.)    RJB 65
Co-founder and director, Operation Exodus, a privately financed community-run busing program in the Roxbury area of Boston, Massachusetts.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without her written permission. Upon her death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Emma (Mrs. Mathew Jackson Sr.) (n.d.)    RJB 271
Member, Lowndes County Co-op, Inc., Lowndes County Freedom Movement, and Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA). Discusses the harassment of her family because she housed civil rights workers in Lowndes County, Alabama in 1964-65.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Emory O. (n.d.)    RJB 136
Editor, The Birmingham World, Birmingham, Alabama. Discusses editorial policy of his paper regarding civil rights. Enumerates several local political action groups and civil rights organizations. Discusses activities of NAACP chapter, including voter registration and the admission of Autherine Lucy and Polly Miles to the University of Alabama. Assesses the Birmingham civil rights movement and its problems after the withdrawal of Martin Luther King Jr. and his team.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Espanola (1933- )    RJB 430
Community organization supervisor, San Francisco, California. Describes her civil rights activism, first as an organizer for a welfare rights advocacy group in San Francisco's Black communities, and later with a senior citizens' rights group. Comments on issues of welfare rights, child care, employment, housing, and community improvement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, H. Ralph (n.d.)    RJB 247
Discusses the Memphis garbage strike, including the Black community's support of the sanitation workers in their drive for unionization; Mayor Loeb's reaction to Black demands; purpose and effect of the boycott; why Martin Luther King Jr. and other Black "leaders" were brought into the situation; the proposed reserve police force.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, John (1946- )     RJB 272 Former director, Alabama State Project, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls numerous associations and experiences as a member of SNCC. Discusses origin and activities of Lowndes County Freedom Party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 73 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, Mathew, Sr. (1910-deceased)    RJB 270
Chairman, Lowndes County Co-op, Inc. Leader in Lowndes County Freedom Movement. Lowndes County representative, Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA). Discusses voter registration in Alabama in 1965. Recounts his venture into politics. Discusses Lowndes County Co-op, SWAFCA, and the Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author's heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Maynard H., Jr. (1938- )    RJB 635/705
Vice Mayor, Atlanta, Georgia. In the first of two interviews he provides insights on his personal background, his politically oriented family, his early professional work, and volunteer legal work providing pro bono legal services to the poor. Discusses his entry into politics--an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the Georgia House of Representatives--during which he established his precedent of forming consciously integrated campaign staffs. Explains how he was elected vice mayor of Atlanta, and describes the duties of his office. Offers general comments on racial politics in Atlanta and Black political direction, emphasizing his support for interracial cooperation and respect. In the second interview Jackson expresses his disappointment with the 1972 presidential campaign of Democrat George McGovern; claims that McGovern took Black votes "for granted." Gives reasons for his support of Black congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's bid for the Democratic nomination and shares his views on other Democratic candidates Hubert Humphrey, "Scoop" Jackson, and George Wallace. Discusses the differences between northern- and southern-style racism and the South's "new" and "old"-style politicians. Compares Atlanta to predominantly Black northern cities such as Gary and Newark. Discusses class struggle and Black options for involvement in political decision making at the national and state levels. Advocates intensified Black political action and economic advancement. Describes his poor working relationship with Atlanta mayor Sam Massell, and reveals his personal political aspirations.
Interviewers: Robert Wright; Edward Thompson III
Dates: October 12, 1970; December 19, 1972
Format: Transcripts, 29 pages; 25 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAMES, C. L. R. (1901- )    RJB 512
Author. Recalls events surrounding the writing of several of his works, including The Black Jacobins. Discusses association with World Socialist Workers Movement and Leon Trotsky.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 10 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAMES, H. Rhett (n.d.)    RJB 184
President, Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC). Chairman, Council of NAACP Branches, Dallas, Texas. Discusses methods employed to facilitate desegregation of public schools and facilities. Outlines NAACP programs and success of OIC.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAVITS, Jacob (1904-1986)    RJB 413
Senator (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Discusses his party's ideology including its desire and need for Black support; Republican-Dixiecrat Southern alignment; influence of big business on the party. Defines the goals of the Nixon Administration in the field of civil rights and his objectives in the same area.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: May 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 8 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JELINEK, Donald (1934- )    RJB 268
Civil rights attorney, formerly associated with Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee. Discusses his association with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the early 1960's. Also discusses his current endeavor, Southern Rural Research Project, "designed to help poor farmers combat discrimination by Federal employers."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JENKINS, Esau (n.d.)    RJB 206
Community leader, Charleston, South Carolina. Community organizer, Penn Center. Member of the board, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Describes the climate of racial awareness and separatism among Blacks on John's Island and in Charleston, South Carolina, especially with regard to Blacks gaining control of the schools they attend. Discusses Black Charlestonians' self-help efforts and his role in establishing a community credit union and recreational center. Recalls community efforts to assist the Poor People's March in 1968 despite the resistance of local whites, by arranging food and housing for the marchers as they passed through the area.
Interviewer: Jim Leeson
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JENKINS, Eunice (n.d.)    RJB 449
Former worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi. Discusses the failure of Head Start and other anti- poverty programs and civil rights activities in her area, citing the control by whites, resulting apathy of Blacks, and organizational rivalry as the major reasons.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JENKINS, Linda (n.d.)    RJB 450
Former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) worker in Indianola, Mississippi, 1964-65. Criticizes the role of out-of- state SNCC workers in her area. Comments on the collapse of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Discusses how the local anti-poverty program curtailed civil rights activities. Discusses methods used by whites to avoid school desegregation and the inequality of public education for Blacks. Relates conditions at Mississippi Valley State College that led to student boycott.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Arthur L. (1926- )    RJB 48
Former executive secretary, Detroit branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates role of that organization in fighting discrimination in Detroit during his 14-year term.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JOHNSON, Beulah (n.d.)    RJB 25
Director, Macon County (Alabama) Community Action Program. Discusses obstacles and efforts involved in voter registration in Macon County, Alabama. Also relates the organization of Alabama Democratic Conference to achieve political unity. Discusses programs of her branch of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Eddie Bernice (n.d.)    RJB 701
Member, Texas House of Representatives. Discusses her campaign for the Texas House of Representatives and her rise to national prominence as a member of the credentials committee during the 1972 Democratic Party convention in Miami. Describes the circumstances behind several minority challenges to delegate seatings at that convention, recalling her own input to the decisions that were made. Provides a detailed account of New York congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's bid to gain the first-ballot nomination of the party at the convention, and reflects on the responses of other Black and white politicians to Chisolm's tactics. Shares her views on the roles of Blacks and women in party politics.
Interviewer: Norma Leonard
Date: July 17, 1972
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Leroy (n.d.)    RJB 636
Senator, Georgia General Assembly. Gives educational background and initiation into politics. Discusses his campaigns, problems as the first Black in the General Assembly in 92 years, legislative assignments, and accomplishments in the legislature. Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Robert E. (1922- )    RJB 33
Managing editor, Jet magazine. Discusses role of Negro press in civil rights. Recalls his association with Martin Luther King Jr. during the Montgomery bus boycott, and early protest activities of entertainer Dick Gregory.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 6, 1967
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Theron (n.d.)    RJB 451
Chief, Northern and Western Branch, Division of Equal Educational Opportunities, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Describes ethnic and racial discrimination against Jews, Italians, and Blacks in New York's state colleges, and discusses federal efforts to achieve racial balance in higher education in the North.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: July 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, William A. (1942- )    RJB 221
Instructor in political science, Flint Community College, Flint, Michigan. Former student, Howard University, during administration-student controversies of late 1960's. Recalls some of the elements of concern to students, including dismissal of certain faculty members, lack of adequate parking facilities for commuting students, and compulsory ROTC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, Edward E. (n.d.)    RJB 202
Civil rights activist in Alabama. Discusses many of his activities as a civil rights demonstrator and agitator.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

JONES, Frankie (Mrs.) (n.d.) RJB 527
Former president of the Berkeley [California] National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls reasons for becoming involved with the civil rights movement in Berkeley. Discusses various civil rights successes she has worked on behalf of, including: passage of a fair housing ordinance, busing to achieve school desegregation, and the establishment of a Human Relations Commission.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: March 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, James (ca. 1942- )    RJB 642
Training director, Federation of Southern Cooperatives, "a technical assistance organization for low-income co-ops." Former Arkansas state field director, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Discusses various forms of aid given to co-ops including financial assistance, marketing information and training for production of specific crops. Relates some of problems that often plague low-income co-ops. Discusses his sit-in activities in various cities in Arkansas that led to his expulsion from school and subsequent association with SNCC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 15, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, James Edward (n.d.)    RJB 445
Former president, Board of Education, Los Angeles Unified and Junior College Districts. Discusses means of improving urban public education and making it more relevant and useful to minority group students. Recalls many innovative programs and activities in which he was involved to further these ends.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, Joseph Charles (1937- )    RJB 19
Director, Action Coordinating Committee to End Segregation in the Suburbs (ACCESS). Former member of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Remembers his role in the early sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina. Recalls the emergence of SNCC and its voter registration program in the South. Discusses ACCESS, which is concerned with the open housing issue in metropolitan District of Columbia area.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 10, 1967
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JONES, Lewis W. (deceased n.d.)    RJB 24
Research professor of sociology, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Discusses and analyzes the development of the civil rights protest movement. Relates results of sociological studies he conducted, associated with the movement.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JONES, Rachel (n.d.)    RJB 201
Recalls activities as a member of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Greensboro, Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 31, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

JORDAN, Joseph (n.d.)     RJB 611
Member, City Council, Norfolk, Virginia.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JORDAN, Vernon (1935- )    RJB 130/405
Director, Voter Education Project, Southern Regional Council. Discusses Project's role in providing technical and financial assistance to organizations engaged in voter registration in the South. Explains why some Blacks do not register to vote. Appraises role of Federal government in enforcing Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Interviewers: John Britton; Stanley H. Smith
Dates: January 26, 1968; August 1968
Format: Transcripts, 13 pages; 21 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

KASTENMEIER, Robert W. (1924- )    RJB 380
Representative (D.-Wisconsin), U. S. Congress. Describes his activities as member of the House judiciary committee during the 1950s and 1960s, when that committee, dominated though it was by southern segregationist Democrats, handled "the lion's share" of civil rights legislation. Gives account of the evolution of several civil rights bills of the 60s, especially the 1964 civil rights and 1965 voting rights acts, noting the political wrangling over clauses, amendments, enforcement, and appropriations. Discusses the parts played by John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson these efforts. Recalls his role on the Democratic Party credentials committee during the 1968 convention, particularly his support for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party's challenge to state party regulars.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: April 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KEEVER, C. M. (n.d.)    RJB 103
First white mayor elected in Tuskegee, Alabama, by a predominately Black electorate. Also, first mayor to preside over a bi-racial city council. Discusses the challenges and accomplishments of his administration.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 5 pages; tape not available
Restrictions The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KELLER, Rosa (1912- )    RJB 121
Discusses her role in integrating the public library, desegregating Tulane University, and developing an integrated housing area for citizens displaced by city construction in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENNEDY, Joseph J. (n.d.)    RJB 431
Judge, San Francisco Municipal Court. Board chairman, Economic Opportunities Council, San Francisco. Former president, Northern California Area Branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Reflects on his legal career and early NAACP involvement in the areas of equal housing and employment opportunity. Chronicles the activities of other San Francisco-Bay Area organizations that promoted coalition politics and lobbying tactics over direct action strategies. Comments on national NAACP leadership figures Roy Wilkins and George Mitchell, stressing the organization's need to establish stronger linkage with younger, more militant groups, expand its regional focus out of the South, and move away from its gradualist orientation. Describes the status of the civil rights movement and the effects of federal antipoverty programs. Discusses the implications of the Black Power movement and the concept of the Third World.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENYATTA, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 631
Veteran Black activist. Close associate, Malcolm X. Recalls several experiences of raw racism he encountered in prison in the 1940s and as a soldier stationed in the South during World War II. Details his close association with Malcolm X in the Nation of Islam and later the Organization for Afro-American Unity (OAAU). Describes several attempts on Malcolm X's life and offers his own theories about Malcolm X's assassination. Discusses Martin Luther King's activities in Harlem after Malcolm X's death. Gives his opinions of Adam Clayton Powell's and H. Rap Brown's leadership. Compares conditions for Blacks in the North and in Africa to those in the South. Presents theory indicting the Black criminal "underworld" as conspiring with white elites to defeat Black liberation movements.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENYATTA, Muhammed (n.d.)    RJB 522
Staff member, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM). Describes the objectives and activities of the self-help, Mississippi Action for Progress organization. Discusses objectives of federal and foundation-financed antipoverty programs. Calls for intensified Black economic development programs, citing the example of several farmers' coops he has organized or worked with.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KIBBIT, Margaret (1946- )    RJB 287
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) candidate for sheriff, Sunflower County, Mississippi. Discusses her campaign and her political party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Annie Mae (1904- )    RJB 331
Former chairwoman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Sunflower County. Discusses voter registration in her area, lack of Black support for MFDP candidates during elections, developmental programs for young Black children.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, C. B. (n.d.)    RJB 392
General counsel to Albany (Georgia) Movement. Defines his role as such. Explains how he uses the law to benefit the poor and Black. Recalls lack of federal aid to Blacks in the movement, and subterfuges of white community to stymie the demonstrators.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Carole (n.d.)    RJB 89
Member, Welfare Grievance Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, an organization of welfare mothers who protest state violations of welfare laws and recipient's rights, and lobby for welfare reform. Discusses problems of families on public assistance. Recalls march from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio to dramatize need for reform.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Celes (n.d.)    RJB 420
President, Los Angeles chapter National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Member, "Young Turks," NAACP. Suggests policy reforms for national office of the organization, including shorter national conventions that will economically enable "grass roots" and members to participate in policy making, less direction from the main office and more assistance and support to local chapters. Comments on his move to have Roy Wilkins replaced as director.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Edwin (1936- )    RJB 686
Former chaplain, Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mississippi. Discusses the role of whites in the civil rights movement, relating the reasons for his own reluctant entry but later deep involvement. Discusses the 1963 Freedom Vote project--a mock statewide election staged with the help of northern white college students--which ran Aaron Henry of the Mississippi National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for governor and himself for lieutenant governor. Comments on the role and strategies of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and its formal challenge to the state Democratic regulars during the 1968 national convention; race relations in Mississippi during the 1960s; the heightening conflicts between police and civil rights activists; the growing mood of Black militancy; Medgar Evers' activities on college campuses; and the Freedom Summer of 1964.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Ernest (n.d.)    RJB 607
KING, Mrs. (n.d.)
Joint interview Director and co-organizer respectively, Black Catholics in Action, Detroit, Michigan. Describes purposes and activities of group. Discusses some of its accomplishments. Looks at discrimination against Blacks within the Catholic Church.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Lonnie (1936- )    RJB 31
Former chairman, Atlanta Student Movement. Recalls origin, victories, and defeats of the mass student protest in Atlanta. Discusses his participation in the organization of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), dissent of Howard University's law students, Urban League projects, and community programs with the United Planning Organization in Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Melvin (1928- )    RJB 63
Director, Urban League of Greater Boston. Discusses active and proposed programs of the League in his area. Deals at length with the problems of public education in Boston.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 63 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KING, Slater (n.d.)    RJB 390
President of the Albany (Georgia) Movement. Recalls founding and objectives of movement, principal persons involved, and effects of demonstrations on Black and white community. Recounts role of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in the activities. Discusses present goals of the movement's leaders for Albany.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 31, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KIRCHHEIMER, Peter (n.d.)    RJB 14
Student activist and member of Students for Democratic Society (SDS) at Columbia University. Compares and contrasts ideology and tactics of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and SDS.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: August 1, 1967
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KIRK, David (n.d.)    RJB 51
Founder and coordinator of Emmaus House in Harlem, a "store-front" church designed to serve spiritual and community needs of the inner-city.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KLUNDER, Joanne M. (n.d.)    RJB 86
Widow of the Reverend Bruce Klunder, who was killed by a bulldozer while participating in a civil rights demonstration at a school construction site in Cleveland, Ohio, April 7, 1964. Relates the events leading to her husband's death. Discusses the organization of the local chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and her hopes for Cleveland under Mayor Carl Stokes.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 16, 1967
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KOONTZ, Elizabeth D. (1919-1989)    RJB 556
Director, Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor. Former president, National Education Association (NEA). Discusses the movement in the South for equalization of Black teachers' salaries and desegregation. Recalls her election to the presidency of NEA and her major function in that role. Gives opinion on busing to achieve school integration. Discusses the objectives of the Women's Bureau and some of its programs.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: May 25, 1970
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LANDRY, Lawrence (1935- )    RJB 35
National Chairman of ACT, a loosely-knit federation of civil rights activists. Former chairman of Chicago Friends of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), a support and fund raising group for SNCC. Organizer of Chicago school boycott, first protest of de facto school segregation.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 7, 1967
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

LANE, Mary (n.d.)    RJB 448
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) in Greenwood, Mississippi. Greenwood sponsor of Child Development Group in Mississippi. Member, Leflore County Voters League. Discusses some of SNCC's leaders during the 1960's. Cites disadvantages of having SNCC workers in her area. Looks at structural weaknesses in SNCC. Discusses "Mississippi Summer Project" and problems in voter registration. Assesses value of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to its constituents and at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LANG, Winston E. (n.d.)    RJB 604
Assistant director, National Urban League, Detroit chapter. Discusses a joint community-Urban League program, Citizens Campaign for Crime Prevention and Leadership Development. Describes effect of group on local crime and relationship of police department to program. Discusses other League services, e.g. employment, research department on Black culture, housing.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 7, 1970
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LAWRENCE, Charles F. (n.d.)    RJB 114
Staff associate, Philadelphia Tutorial Service. Discusses activities of the Service which tutors students after school. Describes his experiences with C. B. King and the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council. Recalls his efforts to improve housing conditions in ghetto of New Haven, Connecticut. Discusses his voter registration activities in the South and the Harlem (New York) riot in 1964.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 72 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LAWSON, James (1928- )    RJB 610
President, United African Nationalist Movement. Chairman, Harlem Council for Economic Development. Describes efforts to organize an independent labor union in Harlem and a "don't buy where you can't work" campaign in the 1930s. Traces his involvement in the Garveyite movement and an outgrowth organization, the United African Nationalist Movement. Focuses on his roles as an advisor to African leaders Haile Selassie and Patrice Lumumba, as an attendee at several Pan-African conferences, and as an international businessman. Discusses his role in establishing a controversial medical facility in Harlem that was shut down for what he posits were racially motivated reasons. Compares the philosophical orientations of the civil rights and Black Nationalist movements, describing the latter as a struggle for human rights and dignity rather than for integration.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 63, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEAKE, George (n.d.)    RJB 394
Discusses his civil rights activities in Gastonia, North Carolina; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Buffalo, New York. Reviews his experiences as a Freedom Rider. Makes reference to his campaign for political office in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, Anthony (n.d.)    RJB 105
A plaintiff in Lee and U. S. v. Macon County (Alabama) Board of Education. One of two persons to desegregate undergraduate school of Auburn University. Discusses factors and problems involved in related activities.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: December 1967
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, George Washington (n.d.)    RJB 246/327
Republican leader, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses Negro control of the Republican Party in his city in 1948. Recalls support of the Elks in school desegregation cases.
Interviewers: James M. Mosby Jr; Allen Coleman
Dates: July 9, 1968; November 1968
Format: Transcripts, 25 pages; 27 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, Gerald (n.d.)    RJB 677 Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Chairman of its Administration and Publication Committee. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

LEIGHTON, George (1912- )    RJB 38
Circuit Court Judge, Cook County, Illinois. Recalls civil rights law cases with which he was connected. Remembers NAACP's fight against race restriction covenants in Chicago. Discusses Chicago and Black life there.
Interviewer:
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 35 pages;
Restrictions: CLOSED

LEMONS, Arthur (n.d.)    RJB 599

Director, Community Relations Department, Office of the Mayor, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses in detail the services and sub- divisions of his department that function to "bring the community closer to city government," including a crisis contingency plan, equal employment program, rumor control center, town hall meetings, and neighborhood community relations board.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEONARD, Jerris (n.d.)    RJB 678
Assistant attorney general, Civil Rights Division, U. S. Department of Justice. Cites previous civil rights activities. Discusses Nixon Administration's approach to civil rights, terming it "negotiation, conciliation, reconciliation." Discusses achievements of his division in Southern school desegregation, equal employment, and the initiation of law suits resulting from violation of court orders. Comments on teacher training grants designed to upgrade credentials of Southern Black teachers. Cites objectives of his division.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEONARD, Margaret (n.d.)    RJB 15
Former "Freedom Rider." Discusses her association with Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) as a Southern white co-ed, and the trend of that organization today. Gives purpose and activities of her present enterprise, International Self-Help Housing Association.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without her written permission. Upon her death, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LEVISON, Stanley (n.d.)    RJB 539
Friend of late Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses "In Friendship," a Northern-based fund raising organization to aid Southerners who suffered abuses or losses because of their civil rights activities. Recalls origin of Southern Christian Leadership Conference and its initial purpose--support of boycotts in various cities. Remembers first meeting with Martin Luther King Jr.; initial impressions. Discusses philosophy of nonviolence and its effect on Montgomery bus boycott.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Delano (1938- )    RJB 714
General Public Affairs Manager, C & P Telephone Company. Former administrative assistant to Delegate Walter Fauntroy (D.-District of Columbia). Former legislative assistant to Senator Edward Brooke (R.-Massachusetts). Recounts his early experiences as a government lawyer and as a Peace Corps administrator in Africa. Recalls his later roles as legal assistant to Senator Edward Brooke (D-MA) and chief of staff and community liaison for Washington, DC Delegate Walter Fauntroy. Traces the political and organizational maturation of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), its evolving legislative agenda and political potential. Appraises New York congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's 1972 presidential campaign, explaining why the CBC did not officially endorse her bid and why Fauntroy ran against her as a "favorite son" candidate from the District of Columbia. Gives behind-the- scenes account of the planning of the 1972 National Black Political Convention--identifying poet-activist Imamu Baraka, Congressman Charles Diggs (D-MI), Gary, Indiana, mayor Richard Hatcher, and Delegate Fauntroy as key figures--and discusses the conventions objectives and results. Discusses his views of racial politics under the Nixon Administration and emphasizes the need for political consciousness raising among Blacks.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: March 1, 1973
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Fred D. (n.d.)    RJB 494
Director, Negro Action Group, New York. Discusses experiences with Afro-American Association, Oakland, California, analyzing the formative influences of the Association on many projects that have been instituted by past members. Also discusses other organizations of minority groups as well as Negro Action Group.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Harold (n.d.)    RJB 672
Professor of history, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Traces the evolution of radical student activism at Howard University from the period of the formation of NAG (Nonviolent Action Group), an early Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) affiliate, whose membership included students Stokely Carmichael, Ed Brown, and Courtland Cox. Discusses the controversy surrounding Howard professor Nathan Hare's role in the student and faculty unrest of the 60s, especially Hare's call for a "Black University" and his alliances with the mostly white faculty forum. Compares the leadership styles of Howard presidents Mordecai Johnson, James Nabrit, and James Cheek, and the intensifying challenges they faced from faculty, administrators, and students from the 1940s to the 1960s.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: January 25, 1971
Format: Transcript, 58 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, John (1940- )    RJB 30
Third chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls student sit-ins in Nashville, Tennessee in early 1960's. discusses founding of SNCC and its activities, including Freedom Rides and demonstration in Selma, Alabama. Recalls his role in the March on Washington and his association with Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 22, 1967
Format: Transcript, 175 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with the permission of the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LEWIS, Rufus A. (n.d.)    RJB 137
Board member and former chairman, Transportation Committee, Montgomery Improvement Association. Relates activities of his committee during bus boycott. Recalls how Martin Luther King became the movement's leader. Discusses voter registration activities in 1940's and role of Alabama Democratic Conference.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: January 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from, and cited by persons engaged in serious research. No reproduction of this record, either in whole or in part, may be made by microphoto, typewriter, photostat, or any other device, except with the permission of the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LINCOLN, C. Eric (n.d.)    RJB 315
Professor of sociology, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author. Discusses his education and academic training. Comments on the role and need of Black colleges and Black scholars. Discusses culture of Black Muslims, "soul," and the white university's responsibility to its Black students. Discusses briefly some of his writings.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 11 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LLORENS, David (1939-deceased, n.d.)    RJB 157
Assistant editor, Ebony. Former civil rights worker in Mississippi. Evaluates the effect of civil rights workers on Black and white Mississippians. Discusses role of the Black writer in the civil rights struggle.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOGAN, Rayford W. (1897-1982)    RJB 1
Historian and author. Relates experiences as Negro in segregated Army, World War I. Discusses W. E. B. Dubois' Pan African Congress in 1921. Gives eyewitness account of the origin of the Burke- Wadsworth Act and Executive Order 8802.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: June 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LONDA, Jeweldean (1926- )    RJB 295
Associate director, Health and Welfare, National Urban League. Reflects on her long-standing involvement with efforts to improve interracial and interdenominational relations, which led her to travel in India, a career in social work, and service as a YWCA staffer--all of which she discusses in her interview. Discusses her role as a white female professional in an organization (the Urban League) predominated by Black male professionals. Explains her frustration and disillusionment with the dream of an interracial society. Analyzes the potential of the student movement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 50, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOOBY, Alexander Z. (n.d.)    RJB 90
Civil rights attorney, Nashville, Tennessee. Discusses civil rights involvement since 1926 including difficulties of Negro lawyers, 1946 race riots in Columbus, Tennessee. Gives impression of prominent civil rights lawyers. Discusses defense of sit-in demonstrators in early sixties; bombing of his house, the Nashville Plan. Comments on remaining needed civil rights laws, progress in Nashville, legal field for Negroes, his work as a member of the City Council since 1951, possibility of Negroes being appointed as judges in Tennessee, and appointment of Thurgood Marshall to U. S. Supreme Court.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOPEZ, Jose (n.d.)    RJB 134
Relates some of the sociological problems faced by Mexican- Americans in the United States. Discusses some of their civil rights organizations. Compares and contrasts the plight of the Negro with that of the Mexican-American in the United States.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOWENSTEIN, Allard (1929-1980)    RJB 513
Representative (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Details his involvement as a civil rights organizer in bringing in northern white college students to work with the Freedom Vote elections in Mississippi in 1963. Contrasts the media coverage given to the harassment and beatings of white students by southern police to that of similar and worse treatment inflicted on Blacks. Discusses this unjust treatment and the resentment it generated on the part of Black activists, particularly those in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and its effect in planning the Freedom Summer project of 1964. Describes the evolution of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party out of the Freedom Vote project.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOWERY, Joseph (1921- )    RJB 641
Chairman, Board of Directors, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Atlanta, Georgia. Reflects on his early activities with the a voter registration efforts in Alabama as a student and young Methodist minister. Explains how, why, and by whom the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was created; identifies and evaluates key SCLC personnel. Assesses SCLC's first attempt to employ nonviolent tactics in the Montgomery bus boycotts, as well as the theological rationale behind nonviolence in general. Recalls his role and that of others in the Montgomery bus boycotts, especially Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ralph Abernathy. Evaluates SCLC's campaigns against housing and employment discrimination in the North, notably Operation Breadbasket in Chicago in 1965. Cites the conditions that led to SCLC's focus on Birmingham, especially the resistance offered by police chief Bull Connor, and the development of the Birmingham Movement. Contrasts the difficulties Blacks encountered desegregating facilities in Montgomery and Birmingham with the ease of similar progress in Mobile. Gives his impressions of southern governors George Wallace of Alabama and Lester Maddox of Georgia, comparing their styles, significance, tactics, and political ambitions. Discusses the effect of Martin Luther King's death on the direction of SCLC and the civil rights movement, and offers his opinions on the conspiracy theories about King's assassination. Stresses the need for Blacks to become more involved in politics, labor organizing, welfare reform, and the anti-Viet Nam War movement.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUCAS, Robert (n.d.)    RJB 155
Chairman, Chicago chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Relates changes in CORE philosophy from integration to Black awareness. Discusses Martin Luther King Jr.'s march on Cicero, and the follow-up demonstration there by CORE.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUSTER, Hervy (n.d.)    RJB 428
Chairman, Western regional area, Action Board of Economic Opportunity Council, San Francisco, California. Discusses his activities as a member of the San Francisco branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and grassroots community organizations. Recalls his participation in pickets against discriminating Bay Area hotels, auto dealerships, and the school board; and in efforts to involve poor people in policy making to improve housing, education, employment, and youth services. Shares his opinions on Black Power.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 21, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUSTER, Orville (1925- )    RJB 463
Executive director, Youth for Service, a community action-training- self-help organization in San Francisco. Discusses founding of his group, its activities, and accomplishments.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LYNCH, Lincoln (n.d.)    RJB 540
Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Recalls early life in Jamaica and immigration to the U. S. where he worked as supporter of W. E. B. DuBois. Discusses activities with Long Island CORE; contest between George Wiley and Floyd McKissick for position of national director of organization; CORE's trend toward Black relevancy, and its subsequent loss of funds and support from the white community.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LYNCH, Walter Gordon (1917- )    RJB 352
Director, Coleman Community Center, New York. Community liaison- director, Ocean Hill-Brownsville School demonstration Project. Chronicles his activism and protest against segregation and racism as a student at southern Black colleges in the 1940s, and his gang- mediating activities as a recreational and social worker in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville (OHB) neighborhood of New York City. Provides history of the grassroots movement for community control of the schools in OHB. Details the involvement of Ford Foundation advisors and community-selected coordinators (notably project administrator Rhody McCoy) in helping community residents develop and actuate plans for an experimental demonstration district of effective model urban schools. Explains the organizational structure of the decentralized district. Provides in-depth account of the interpersonal, philosophical, racial, and legal conflicts between the district's governing board, the teachers union, and the central school board; targeting the roles played by United Federation of Teachers' president Albert Shanker and central board superintendent Bernard Donovan. Discusses the OHB parents' reactions to the recurrent teachers' strikes, the court-ordered closings of the district schools, and the arrests of district administrators who fought to keep the schools open.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 107 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LYNN, Conrad (n.d.)    RJB 493
Attorney. Discusses the suspension of Robert Williams from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and circumstances causing his flight from the United States. Recalls the formation of the Freedom Now Party and some of its accomplishments. Discusses the aid given Malcolm X by the Socialist Workers Party. Looks at the Black Panthers and their Communist support. Cites his role in several outstanding law cases.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Tape length:
Restrictions: Standard

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