RALPH J. BUNCHE ORAL HISTORY COLLECTION (S-Z)




SALVATORI, Henry (n.d.)    RJB 418
Campaign manager for Samuel Yorty in his third-term bid for mayor of Los Angeles. Discusses the campaign in relation to Yorty's leading opponent, Black candidate, Thomas Bradley. Explains why Bradley polled a large per cent of the total vote in the primary, attributing it to "Black sympathy." Discusses "Communist and militant influences" in the Bradley camp.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



SAMPSON, Albert Richard (1938- )    RJB 229
Staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Atlanta, Georgia. Recalls origin of idea of Poor People's Campaign. Discusses the marshalling of forces for Campaign and some problems of Resurrection City.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SANDERS, Emma (n.d.)    RJB 472
Leader, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Head, Haynes County Head Start Program. Reminisces about the character and activism of her college classmate Medgar Evers, recalling the Jackson community's reaction to his murder. Offers explanation for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) subsequent moratorium on demonstrations in Mississippi and describes the mounting disillusionment of several local NAACP field workers. Discusses the roles of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) workers (especially Bob Moses) in the Freedom Vote project, and identifies areas of conflict between local ministers and community leaders and outside activist groups. Gives a history of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party: its supporters and detractors; and the challenge raised by it, the Loyal Democrats, and Young Democrats to the established Mississippi Democratic Party. Discusses Head Start and Child Development Group of Mississippi antipoverty program activities, contending the co-option of civil rights activists into the latter and its spin-off groups (Mississippi Action for Progress and the Friends of the Children of Mississippi). Cites the dangers involved in civil rights work in southern Mississippi. Reflects on CORE's and SNCC's decisions to withdraw from civil rights activity in the state. Speculates on the future of the civil rights movement locally and nationwide.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 91 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SAUNDERS, Bill (n.d.), joint with RJB 204
PHENIX, Roger
Community organizer, Johns Island, South Carolina. Discusses public school education in Johns Island, and why he now prefers Black schools for Black youth, rather than integrated education. Reveals some of his ideas and programs for Black school system. Discusses employment conditions for Black hospital workers in his city.
Interviewer: Leeson
Date:
Format: Transcript, 63 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SAVAGE, Philip (1932- )    RJB 44
Field director, Tri-State Area, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses his experiences in student protests at Morgan State College, Baltimore. Relates activities with NAACP in voter registration and anti-segregation measures in Cambridge, Maryland.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SCATTERGOOD, Charles (1941- )    RJB 576
Former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) worker in Mississippi during the 1960's. Describes his involvement in civil rights, including protest demonstrations in Washington and California. Discusses his association with SNCC, especially his difficulty in being accepted by the organization after it embraced "Black Power." Also discusses friction between Black and white workers, reaction of white community to civil rights workers, voter registration, and reaction of Black local residents to white SNCC members. Comment on Black Panthers and why they are supported by elements of the "radical left."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 2, 1970
Format: Transcript, 61, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHERMER, George (n.d.)    RJB 76
Author. White House consultant on inner-city problems. Recounts his Depression-New Deal era entry into interracial reconciliation/mediation activities and public housing management on Chicago's south side. Describes racial divisions and violent conflicts in that city (and also in Detroit) in the 1940s due to deliberate and discriminatory tenant selection practices. Recalls his experiences as director of Philadelphia's Commission on Human Relations and appraises that Commission's vanguard efforts in advancing the concept and model of affirmative action in housing and employment. Discusses contemporary federal urban renewal and public housing efforts. Argues the need for broad social change to effect Black economic advancement and assesses the status of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 125 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHINGLE, Frank E. (n.d.)    RJB 248
Local leader, John Birch Society, Memphis, Tennessee. Comments on the Memphis garbage strike within the framework of his organization's philosophy. Suggests alternative methods to striking by which sanitation workers could have achieved their demands. Comments on the "Communist" influence in the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHNEIDER, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 249
Editor, Memphis Press-Scimitar. States why his paper opposed local garbage strike in 1968. Comments on why strike developed into racial issue. Discusses the effect of the newspaper boycott on his paper. Assesses the mood of Memphis after the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHWARZCHILD, Henry (1925- )    RJB 314
Former executive director, Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee, an organization of volunteer lawyers formed to represent the Black community and civil rights workers in the South. Discusses some of the initial problems of the Committee and its funding and impact on legal rights in the South in relation to Blacks. Discusses relevance of civil rights movement to him as a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: July 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 72 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCOTT, C. A. (1908- )    RJB 127
Editor-publisher of The Atlanta Daily World, one of few Black daily newspapers in U. S. A. Discusses origin and political effect of the Daily.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEALE, Bobby (1936- )    RJB 346
Chairman, Black Panther Party. Discusses origin, development, philosophy, and programs of the Black Panthers.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEAY, Solomon, Jr. (1932- )    RJB 269
Attorney. Discusses some of the civil rights cases in which he was counsel. Gives insight into the legal problems involved in the Selma-to-Montgomery March.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEIGENTHALER, John (n.d.) RJB 234
Former administrative assistant to the late Robert F. Kennedy during part of his tenure as Attorney General of the U. S. Remembers the civil rights activities of Kennedy and his staff, including his relationship with Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses the Justice Department's role in freedom rides, voter registration, and the employment of Blacks in the Department.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SELLER, Barney (n.d.)    RJB 491
Formerly of Project Enforcement, Office of Economic Opportunity. Discusses the 350 page study he compiled in which he examined the efforts of private civil rights groups in Washington, D. C., and Federal agencies having powers to enforce civil rights. Relates the results of his study and its acceptance by various groups.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: December 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

SHAGALOFF, June (1928- )    RJB 308
First director of education, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls her activities in preparing communities for integrated education prior to the Supreme Court decision of 1954, and methods of implementing desegregation after the ruling.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 5, 1967
Format: Transcript, 92 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHAKOW, Patricia Connell (n.d.)    RJB 410
Legislative aide, Senator Jacob Javits (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Explains why some civil rights bills passed and others did not, recalling the strategies and tactics employed by pro-civil rights congressmen and their staffs to get the Civil Rights Bill of 1964 out of committee and onto the Senate floor for a vote. Discusses also the 1965 voting rights bill and the open housing bill of 1966. Identifies key figures in congressional activity around civil rights legislation, notably the roles played by senators Everett Dirksen, Sam Ervin, Hubert Humphrey, Jacob Javits, Richard Russell, and Strom Thurmond. Cites the influence of church and labor groups, especially the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, in shaping congressional and public opinion on civil rights issues. Speculates on the incoming Nixon administration's position on civil rights enforcement and the future of civil rights legislation.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHANKER, Albert (n.d.)    RJB 531
President, American Federation of Teachers. Provides the teachers' perspective of the bitter conflict that developed between the predominantly white teachers' union and the Black and Puerto Rican parents and members of the Ocean Hill-Brownsville (New York City) community which organized to form an independent, community- controlled school district. Describes the union's objectives in its negotiations with community leaders, and gives reasons for teachers' resistance to the kind of community control the residents sought to implement. Discusses the role played by Ford Foundation advisors in the creation and advancement of the demonstration district. Criticizes the actions and tactics of central district school board members as union-busting in their intent, and attributes much of the tension between the parents and teachers to the central board. Explains why the teachers went on strike in September 1967 and discusses the community's reaction to the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHANNON, Katherine (n.d.)    RJB 297
Former staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and worker in Poor People's Campaign. Discusses outstanding persons, events and aspects of the Campaign. Relates successes and difficulties involved. Details life in Resurrection City.
Interviewer: Claudia Rawles
Date: August 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 81 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHERMAN, Magnolia (n.d.)    RJB 603
Intermediary worker for Welfare Rights Association, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses the need for her organization and some of its accomplishments.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: July 31, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHUMAN, Mark A. (n.d.)    RJB 559
Student, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Suggests possible reasons for the violence that accompanied a UMD student demonstration against the Viet Nam War. Describes the violence, the police methods used to suppress the crowd, and some of the strategies of the protesting groups. Discusses the differences between the Black and white student movements at UMD and nationally.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHUTTLESWORTH, Fred L. (1922- )    RJB 94
Founding member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses harassments he endured because of his civil rights activism, including the bombing of his home and church in Birmingham. Recalls SCLC campaign in Birmingham, Alabama. Discusses origin of SCLC and gives insight into the personality of Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses idea for March on Washington 1963.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 1968
Format: Transcript, 94 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIAS, Henry (1881- )    RJB 278
Chairman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Issaquena County, Mississippi. Member of MFDP 1964 delegation that challenged seating of the "regulars" at the Democratic Convention in Atlantic City.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMMONS, Althea (n.d.)    RJB 574
National director, Educational Services, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Reflects on her career as an NAACP legal counsel, especially her work with its voter registration and education projects throughout the South, focusing on the activities of the NAACP youth branches. Recalls NAACP Mississippi involvement in the Conference of Federated Organizations, the Freedom Vote project, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Discusses the other NAACP programs; and describes her current duties with the NAACP: recruiting second- and third-level leadership in Black communities. States NAACP positions on community control, Black Studies, separate dormitories for Black students on white college campuses, consumer education, and the cooperative movement. Highlights the relationship between the Howard University Law School and the NAACP. Describes the reactions of NAACP-Washington, DC-branch staffers and other civil rights figures who were actually present at the Supreme Court building on May 17, 1954, or in the DC area when the Brown v. Board of Education decision was handed down.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: June 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMMONS, Samuel (n.d.) RJB 674
Assistant secretary, Equal Opportunity, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Recalls his early involvement with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) as a college student "testing" public accommodation providers' observance of desegregation laws; then as an NAACP research staffer, a labor dispute mediator with the Michigan Fair Employment Practices Commission, and later member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Delineates his HUD duties and objectives: administering and enforcing the Fair Housing Law and coordinating the construction of mass-produced federal housing projects for low- income residents. Describes countermanding tactics used by local governments, construction companies, and building trades unions to avoid desegregation and affirmative action statutes, and details HUD's responses to noncompliance. Articulates a vision of Black and minority capitalism and entrepreneurship, especially heightened Black involvement in the housing industry. Compares the Nixon, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations' commitment to HUD programs.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 14, 1971
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMPSON, Larry (n.d.)    RJB 579
President, Kent State Black Student Union. Comments on the lack of Black student participation in the Kent State demonstrations in 1970. Discusses the goals of the Black Student Union and the activities of its six divisions--communications, cultural, educational, economic, social, defense.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions Standard

SIRLES, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 459
Community service worker, district 4, Economic Opportunity Council, San Francisco, California. Discusses the formation of the Black Student Union (BSU) at Golden Gate College and that group's relatively peaceful, nonconfrontational achievement of its demands for curricular and administrative changes aimed at making the college more meaningful for students of color.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SLAINMAN, Donald (n.d.)    RJB 366
Director, civil rights department, AFL-CIO. Discusses objectives and programs of his division. Explains method used to process complaints of discrimination by workers. Relates role of unions in combating social and civil rights problems. Discusses AFL-CIO's support of civil rights legislation and progress Blacks have made within unions. Describes LEAP (Labor Education Advancement Program), a project operated jointly with the National Urban League.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: January 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMILEY, Glenn E. (1910- )    RJB 42
Associate executive director, Fellowship of Reconciliation, a pacifist group often active in civil rights endeavors. Discusses his role as advisor to Martin Luther King Jr., in tactical nonviolence, during Montgomery bus boycott. Also relates his experiences in civil rights demonstrations in other Southern centers.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 12, 1967
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SMITH, A. Maceo (n.d.)    RJB 182
Assistant to regional director, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Dallas, Texas. Concentrates on the activities of the Committee of Fourteen, a bi-racial group of Black and white businessmen and civic leaders which attempted to bring about peaceful integration in Dallas.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Edward (n.d.)    RJB 589
President, Student Government, Morgan State College, Baltimore, Maryland. States his reasons for enrolling at Morgan State, the goals of his student body presidency, and his personal rewards from student government involvement. Describes the general student climate and recalls several student protests there in 1970 after the Jackson State killings and the school administration's reactions to the protests. Explains why MSU's student government association broke off from the predominantly white National Students Association. Comments on Black Baltimore congressman Parren Mitchell's political and civil rights leadership.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Kelly Miller (n.d.)    RJB 261
Former adult leader and advisor in the Southern civil rights protest movement of the early 1960's. Also discusses his youth in all-Negro town in Mississippi.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: December 22, 1967
Format: Transcript, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Lou (1929- )    RJB 350
Former member, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Director, Operation Bootstrap, a non-profit Black enterprise in Los Angeles, California. Traces CORE's adoption of the Black Power concept from its 1965 convention in North Carolina. Discusses Operation Bootstrap--its origin, philosophy, and some of its entities, which include a school, factory, and publishing company.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Maxine (n.d.) RJB 251
Executive secretary, Memphis, Tennessee chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP). Looks at Memphis during the garbage strike and its aftermath. Discusses NAACP activities prior to and during the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Melvin (1939- )    RJB 277
Elected constable on the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) ticket in Issquena County, Mississippi in 1967. Discusses his duties, his town, and why he was the only successful MFDP candidate in that election.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Robert L. T., Sr. (n.d.)    RJB 486
Member, Jackson (Mississippi) chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates his opinions on Black voter registration efforts in Mississippi from the 1920s through the 60s and evaluates changes in the racial climate of the South. Recalls his involvement in civil rights activities in Mississippi as head of the Jackson Movement after Medgar Evers's assassination, first treasurer of the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO), and as an active participant in the Freedom Vote campaign and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Identifies several of the workers and organizations involved in support of civil rights efforts in Mississippi and chastises those Blacks who were more compliant and afraid to jeopardize their privileged positions with the white power structure. Discusses the economic status of Black Mississippians in the 1960s.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, S. Edward (n.d.), joint with RJB 36
ATKINSON, Albert B.

Executive director, Office of Economic Opportunity, Maryland office. Describes on-the-job training programs administered through his office. Looks at socio-economic situation of Blacks in Baltimore.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Scott B., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 59
Former project director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Describes internal struggle of CORE in Chicago, causing it to split along ideological and racial lines. Gives eyewitness account of Southern voter registration.
Interviewer Stanley H. Smith
Date: October 1968
Format: Transcript, 58 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Stanley H. (n.d.)    RJB 175
Sociologist. Chairman, Social Sciences Division, Tuskegee Institute. Member, Tuskegee (Alabama) City Council. Discusses economic and social changes in his city as a result of Blacks being elected to the city council. Reflects on Tuskegee's gerrymandering case. Discusses the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) and the Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA) as economic opportunities for lower income Blacks.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: April 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Welton (n.d.)    RJB 498
Poet. Student. One of the initiators of Stanford University African-American Literary Journal. Talks about his experiences as a Black student at Stanford University in the 1960s and about the formation of the Afro-American Association (AAA) there. Highlights the AAA's community improvement and economic development efforts and its cultural activities, especially the three annual "Mind of the Ghetto" conferences it sponsored on inner-city life. Discusses his poetry, the role of the artist in society and in the Black struggle, and the commodification of art.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPEISER, Lawrence (n.d.)    RJB 218
Director, Washington, D. C. office, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Gives origin, nature, growth and membership of his organization. Makes reference to several ACLU cases in the civil rights area. Discusses concept of civil disobedience. Gives ACLU's connection with Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee, and discusses some of LCDC's activities.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 1968
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPERO, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 572
Professor, Howard University, Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Henry Smith
Date: June 8, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPINGARN, Arthur (1878-1971)    RJB 165
Former president, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses the NAACP in its infancy--its programs, staff, and funding. Comments on many of the organization's outstanding personalities, including W. E. B. DuBois, Walter White, and Roy Wilkins. Looks at today's NAACP.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 6, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STALLWORTH, Edward (n.d.)    RJB 196
First Negro desk sergeant, Tuskegee (Alabama) police force. Discusses activities and duties of that position and changes he instituted within the police department.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: June 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STANLEY, Frank L., Sr. (n.d.)    RJB 300
Editor-publisher, Louisville Defender, Louisville, Kentucky. Highlights his newspaper career and gives a brief history of the Black press in America--its role and contributions, present status, relationship to the white press, and problems. Discloses The Defender's circulation and distribution. Discusses his involvement in the civil rights involvement and describes generally the important role of the Black press, revealing the activist roots of many prominent Black newspaper figures. Identifies Black press "graduates" among prominent civil rights leaders.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEELE, Percy H., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 427
Executive director, Bay Area Urban League, San Francisco, California. Recalls highlights of his two-decades-plus career organizing and reorganizing offices of the Urban League across the country to focus on race relations, police-community relations, employment, vocational training, housing, and welfare issues in the inner city. Focuses on the San Francisco branch's involvement with the United Freedom Movement and other civil rights and student activist groups in the 60s. Discusses the Third World coalition concept, Black Power, and the Black Panthers.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEVENS, Jose (n.d.)    RJB 667
Harlem organizer, American Communist Party. Founding member, Young Workers Liberation League. Explains his Marxist philosophy and gives history of the League (founded in 1970). Discusses his involvement in tenants' rights activities and outlines his campaign platform in his bid for (undisclosed) public office. Shares views on labor aspects of the Ocean Hill-Brownsville school district dispute, Black capitalism and capitalists, and the class struggle in America.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEWART, Darneau V. (n.d.)    RJB 697
Member, School Board, Detroit, Michigan. Discusses his 1963 and 1964 platforms and campaigns for election to the Detroit school board, the latter of which he won for a 6-year term. Describes his duties on the board and his and other Black board members' efforts to change teacher examination and tenure regulations to increase the number of Black teachers and effect policy changes aimed at integrating school system staffs.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEWART, Pearl (n.d.)    RJB 670
Feature editor, Hilltop, Howard University student newspaper, Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOKES, Louis (1925- )    RJB 713
Representative (D.-Ohio) and chairman, Black Caucus, U. S. Congress. Discusses his reasons for entering politics. Concentrates on Black Caucus, including its origin and goals, divisions within the group; relationship to President Nixon's Administration. Comments on Black National Political Convention in Indiana (1972) and Black support of Democratic and Republican presidential candidates.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: March 14, 1973
Format: Transcript, 12, 16, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOKES, Sim (n.d.)    RJB 661
Associate director, Management and Technical Assistance, the President's Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise. Describes the scope of the Advisory Council's mandate and broadly discusses minority business enterprise and finance issues and strategies. Gives opinions on Black separatism and political direction.
Interviewer: Norma Leonard
Date: December 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 74 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOVALL, Charlayne Hunter (1942- )    RJB 11
First Negro woman to matriculate and graduate from the University of Georgia. Relates some of her experiences there, and those of her fellow Black colleague, Hamilton Holmes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STROMAN, C. F. (n.d.)    RJB 655
Professor, Aerospace Studies, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Shares highlights of his military career--particularly incidents of racism and his reactions to them--and of his experiences as an ROTC instructor at Howard University. Describes the campus climate and student attitudes. Comments on the concept of Black Power and compares the effectiveness of various civil rights groups.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 80 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SUAREZ, Matteo (n.d.) RJB 468
Former field secretary, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Mississippi. Discusses the creation of the New Orleans CORE chapter and the factors leading to its dissolution as an integrated branch and later reconstitution as an all-Black group. Comments on CORE's activities in Mississippi, particularly with the Freedom Vote project and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Cites reasons why CORE pulled out of Mississippi and points out broader racial, economic, and geographical tensions and disparities between CORE's national office staff and its field staff. Describes the scope and activities of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference-sponsored New Orleans Consumers League. Briefly discusses the development of the Free Southern Theater in New Orleans. Notes the successes and goals of a cooperative trucking firm and other entrepreneurial ventures he and other Black New Orleanians developed with federal loan assistance.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SUGARMON, Russell B. Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 192
Representative, Tennessee State Legislature. Attorney. Recalls his experiences as demonstrator, lawyer and advisor to protesters who sought to end segregated public facilities in Memphis in the early 1960's. Contrasts tactics and attitudes of present day protesters with those of early 1960's. Looks at situation and condition of Blacks in Memphis.
Interviewer: Clayton Braddock
Date: May 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SULLIVAN, Leon H. (1922- )    RJB 46
Minister and community organizer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. First director, Operation Breadbasket--campaign that selectively boycotts industries and companies to force them to hire Blacks. Founder Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC), a manpower training program. Discusses these endeavors. Also discusses other economic programs he initiated, such as housing complexes and a shopping center financed by Blacks.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SULLIVAN, Neil (n.d.)    RJB 79
Superintendent of the Prince Edward County, Virginia Free School Association, when the public schools re-opened in 1964, after being closed for five years in order to avoid integrating.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 83 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TAITT, Adelaide L. (n.d.)    RJB 296
Activist, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Describes the Atlanta Student Movement of the late 1950s through the 60s. Highlights the activities and tactics of Atlanta University, Morehouse, and Spelman student members of SNCC and the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights to integrate public theaters, restaurants, and transportation services and to "test" desegregation progress via boycotts, sit-ins, jail-ins, and media pressure. Discusses her own prison experiences and that of other civil rights protesters. Reads a few entries from her jailhouse diary. Recalls especially the activities of her friend, activist Ruby Doris Smith, a Spelman student, one of SNCC's founders, and its first executive secretary.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TATE, Horace E. (1922- )     RJB 637
Associate director, Georgia Association of Educators, Atlanta, Georgia. Reflects on his experiences as a school principal in rural "Jim Crow" Black public schools in Georgia in the 40s, citing his behind-the-scenes efforts to organize Black parents and community leaders to improve conditions in these schools and to register to vote. Gives brief history of the (Black) Georgia Teachers Association (GTA), describing its structure and purpose and his leadership role in that organization prior to Brown v. Board of Education. Describes the impact of desegregation on Black teachers, school administrators, and students. Discusses the reasons for and effects of the GTA's 1970 merger with the larger, mostly white, state teachers' association to form the National Education Association-affiliated Georgia Association of Educators, focusing on his new role as vice president of the desegregated organization. Recounts discriminatory practices he was subjected to after his appointment to the NEA national board. Discusses his 1969 Atlanta mayoral campaign. Endorses Jimmy Carter's bid for the governorship and comments favorably on Lester Maddox's record of Black state employment. Advocates Black community control of schools and other community assets.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TAYLOR, Noel C. (1922- )    RJB 621
Member, City Council, Roanoke, Virginia. First Black so elected. Comments on his campaign, Black-white civic cooperation, Black political development and unity, problems peculiar to Black community, and means of livelihood in his city.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TAYLOR, William L. (1931- )    RJB 18
Staff director, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Formerly staff lawyer with NAACP Legal Defense Educational Fund. Discusses civil rights cases handled by Fund, and also their cost in terms of man- hours and finances. Relates anti-discriminatory measures of Civil Rights Commission that were enacted into law.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Antonio (1944- )    RJB 640
Associate director, Southern Center for Studies in Social Policy, which provides "day-to-day legal assistance for Black community organizations." Discusses duties as associate director; major programs of Center, especially services to Black elected officials; local politics in Georgia. Recalls sit-in activities as member of Committee on Appeal for Human Rights. Discusses role as legal intern to civil rights lawyers in the South during the 1960's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Larry (n.d.)    RJB 595
Director, Black Unity Community Center and Black Unity House, Cleveland, Ohio. Explains programs and classes offered. Discusses funding of organization. Gives his definition of Black nationalism. Discusses relevancy of present American system to Blacks.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Piri (n.d.)    RJB 53
Author. Discusses his book, Down These Mean Streets. Recites some of his prose and poetry which express life in inner-city ghettos. Discusses briefly his life to date.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TIJERINA, Reis (1926- )    RJB 194
Leader of Mexican-American contingency of Poor People's Campaign. Briefly describes his life to date. Discusses methods allegedly used by U. S. Government to wrest land grants from his people. Discloses his role in the Poor People's Campaign and the difficulty between it and SCLC.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TILLMAN, Nathaniel (n.d.)    RJB 209
Academic Dean of Instruction, Delaware State College. Discusses issues that caused student unrest at his school in 1968.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

TILLSON, John B. (n.d.)    RJB 409
Tillson and some members of SNCC recall the murder of Jonathan Daniels, who was shot while working on a voter registration drive in Alabama.
Interviewer: John B. Tillson
Date: January 31, 1968
Format: Transcript, 18 pages
Restrictions: Standard

TODD, Mollie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 108
RAGLAND, Martha Mrs. Todd
of the League of Women Voters--Churchwomen United, and Mrs. Ragland, Chairman, Tennessee State Advisory Committee to the U. S. Commission of Civil Rights, discuss social and racial injustice in Nashville, Tennessee, and personal problems they experienced as white civil rights advocates.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: December 23, 1967
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TOWNES, Clarence L., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 571
Special assistant to the chairman of the Republican National Committee. Two interviews. First deals with his civil rights activities in Virginia prior to joining the National Committee; how he became associated with the Republican Party and subsequently the National Committee; duties with that organization; theories on the use of political power for the vested interest of minority groups; Nixon's "Southern strategy." Second interview concerns Nixon's political strategy; Virginia politics; Townes' role with the Nixon Administration.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TRACY, Octavius (1942- )    RJB 421
Director, Upward Bound, University of San Francisco. Member, Black Student Union, San Francisco State College (SFSC). Identifies the key leadership of the Black Student Union at SFSC during the 1960s (notably that of Donald Warden and Jimmy Garrett), the activities they led and their thrust to make the college more responsive to Black students and Blacks in the local community. Discusses the concepts of Black Power and the Third World, the Black Panthers, Black and other ethnic group studies, white racism, Black separatist and integrationist ideologies, and the possibility of violent racial confrontation in America.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TRENT, William (n.d.)    RJB 584
Director of Equal Opportunities Education, George Washington University, Washington, D. C. Discusses the need for and purpose of his service, a remedial compensatory program for Black incoming students at George Washington. Reviews aspects of his program, including counseling, tutorial service and the summer remedial course. Comments on the lack of Black faculty and Black studies program at the University.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUCKER, Sterling (1923- )    RJB 5/500
Director, Urban League, Washington, D. C. Traces his association with the Urban League to date. Discusses activities and programs of the D. C. Chapter. Gives his ideas on riots, their causes and eradication. Discusses public education in Washington.
Interviewers: Vincent J. Browne; James M. Mosby Jr.
Dates: July 17, 1967; October 18, 1969
Format: Transcripts, 43 pages; 10 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUREAUD, A. P. (1899-1972)    RJB 467
Veteran activist, New Orleans Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls the challenges of his active legal career as a lawyer for the New Orleans NAACP, working with Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston on issues of voter registration and desegregation in higher education. Digresses to relate a colorful history of the Black presence in Louisiana from the 18th century through Reconstruction to the 1900s and the civil rights era. Comments on Louisiana governor Huey Long's racial perspectives.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TURNER, Jesse (n.d.) RJB 256
President, Memphis chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Cites the NAACP's position and efforts in support of the striking Memphis sanitation workers and in the Memphis area generally. Gives background information on the strike: the long-standing grievances of the men and their previous attempts to unionize; the formation of the Community on the Move for Equality (COME); and the mobilization of the Memphis community around the issue--the related boycotts and almost daily marches staged during the strike. Recalls Martin Luther King Jr.'s visits to Memphis, explains why King was called, and considers the impact of King's assassination on the strike negotiations. Compares the Loeb and Ingram mayoral administrations' relationships with the Black Memphis community, and outlines racial divisions in Memphis city politics.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUTT, Stacey (n.d.) RJB 617
Member, City Council, Culpepper, Virginia. First Black elected since 1887. Describes low-income housing and recreational facilities as primary needs of Black citizens. Discusses the economic base, employment, and Black migration in this city of approximately 6,000 inhabitants.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TYUS, Wyomie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 439
RUDOLPH, Wilma

Olympic champions and gold medal winners. Administrative analysts, Black Studies Program, University of California, Los Angeles.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

UDALL, Morris K. (1922- )    RJB 709
Representative (D.-Arizona). U. S. Congress. Recalls childhood influences that geared him towards career in government. Discusses Mormon Church dogma as it relates to Blacks. Looks at civil rights legislation during Johnson Administration and its outlook under Nixon. Examines areas of job discrimination in Federal government. Comments on effectiveness of Congressional Black Caucus.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 22, 1973
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

UNGER, Paul (1914- )    RJB 84
Chairman, Cleveland (Ohio) Subcommittee, U. S. Commission on Civil Rights. Reflects on his government and civic service activities in Cleveland, particularly as a member of the local Civil Rights Commission whose efforts focused on eliminating housing, hiring, and welfare discrimination against the urban poor. Describes the efforts of the Cleveland Inner-City Action Committee and the Businessmen's Interracial Committee to improve police-Black community relations, increase the number of Black police, create other employment opportunities, and renew the inner city. Comments on new (Cleveland's first Black) mayor Carl Stokes's platform and political future and compares Stokes's and his predecessor's race- relations records.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 15, 1967
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

USSERY, Wilfred T. (1928- )    RJB 434
Second national vice-chairman, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and president, Black Urban Systems, a consulting firm that advises Black communities on acquiring control of institutions, services, and resources generated within their environs. Discusses activities of San Francisco CORE in areas of de facto school segregation and employment.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 101 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

VINSON, Luther H. (n.d.)    RJB 666
Assistant to the president, Freedom National Bank of New York. Former leader, Rochdale (New York) chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates the historical importance and achievements of Black-owned banks in the South. Gives history of Freedom National Bank in Harlem: its 1964 establishment, backers, objectives, and growth. Comments on the white-dominated banking industry's role in creating Black ghettos in the urban North, citing Black banks' efforts to reverse economic decline in Black communities. Advocates for the continued support and promotion of Black banks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

VIVIAN, C. T. (n.d.)    RJB 153
Former staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses some of the civil rights campaigns in which he was involved including the Nashville (Tennessee) movement and St. Augustine (Florida) movement. Describes the philosophy and guidance of Martin Luther King Jr. and other SCLC officials in various activities and demonstrations.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

VORSPAN, Albert (1924- )    RJB 107
Director, Commission on Social Action, Union of Hebrew Congregations. Discusses the civil rights-social action thrust of his department. Looks at the attitudes and role of Jews in the civil rights area.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 19, 1967
Format: Transcript, 75 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WAGNER, Freida (n.d.), see Walker, Tillie    RJB 231


WAITHE, Eldridge (1908- )    RJB 73

Negro Deputy Chief Inspector, New York City Police Department. Discusses his experiences as a law enforcement officer and the conflicts of a Black policeman.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WALKER, A. Maceo (1909- )    RJB 254
Chairman of the board and president, Universal Life Insurance Company, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses the Memphis garbage strike, including the grievances of the sanitation workers and why he believed the strike was justified. Describes the protest marches.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 578
Member, Yale University Strike Committee. Discusses reasons for joining the strike committee, May Day, Black students at Yale, and effect of campus strikes.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Tillie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 231
WAGNER, Freida
Two American Indian participants in the Poor People's Campaign. Relate how they became involved in the movement. Discuss tribal opposition to the movement, the gathering of Indian Participants across the country, and life in Resurrection City. Walker describes United Scholarship Service, a private agency devoted to higher education for Indians.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Wyatt Tee (1929- )    RJB 56
Former executive director, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Describes personalities, operations, and projects connected with SCLC. Discusses relationship of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to SCLC.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 102 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALLACE, William (1937- )    RJB 273
Co-chairman, Greenwood Movement, Greenwood, Mississippi. Discusses the "militant but nonviolent" philosophy of the Movement. Recalls its origin. Cites reasons for the boycott in Greenwood, including the lack of Black employment in business and government.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALLER, Alfred (n.d.)    RJB 85
Discusses United Pastors Association, a civic and social action group in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALMSLEY, Arthur (1928- )    RJB 115
Acting associate director, Department of Christian Social Relations of the Episcopal Church. Traces the development of the Episcopal Church's attitude towards integration following the supreme Court decision of 1954.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 8, 1968
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALTER, Francis X. (n.d.)    RJB 400
Director, Selma Inter-Religious Project, Selma, Alabama. Founder Quilting Bee Industry, Gees Bend, Alabama. Describes his entry, as an Episcopal minister, into civil rights activities in Alabama, noting especially his roles in the formation of ESCRU (the Episcopal Society for Cultural and Racial Unity) and the Selma Interreligious Project (SIP). Outlines the purpose, composition, and achievements of both groups. Highlights their involvement and that of other white groups and individuals before, during, and after the 1965 Southern Leadership Conference-coordinated march on Selma. Discusses conflicts between white and Black, local and "outside" civil rights factions in Selma and other parts of Alabama where he worked. Assesses the political conflicts between rural Dallas County (Alabama) whites and Blacks. Details the conflict between Shirley Mesher, a former Southern Christian Leadership Conference worker, and Rev. Frederick Reese in particular. Comments on the creation and operation of an Office of Economic Opportunity-funded antipoverty agency, Self-Help Against Poverty for Everyone, a local Voters League organization, and a farmers' cooperative (the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association). Describes the activities of the Southwest Alabama Self-Help Housing, Inc., and a Black women quilters' cooperative in rural Wilcox County and his leadership/guidance role in these two enterprises. Comments generally on the role of whites in the civil rights movement and the exploitation of Blacks in the rural South.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WARDEN, Donald (1936- ) RJB 426
Founder, Afro-American Association, San Francisco, California. Reflects on how he overcame an educationally underprivileged background to attend Howard University and the University of California-Berkeley law school and become an attorney/community activist. Discusses his role in the creation of an all-Black reading/study group at UC-Berkeley, the Afro-American Association, which evolved into a cultural organization that developed and provided comprehensive civic programs in the Black Bay Area community. Describes the "Mind of the Ghetto" conferences the group sponsored and the local radio and television shows it produced, which he hosted. Notes his relationship with singer James Brown, highlighting the political consciousness-raising influence he had on Brown's musical directions during the 60s.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 25, 1969
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WARREN, John (n.d.)    RJB 669
Student, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Recalls student protests and the political climate at Howard University in the late 1960s, especially around the issue of making the university "more relevant" and demands for a "Black university." Discusses his own involvement in student government. Contrasts James Nabrit's administration and relationship with students and faculty to that of his successor, James Cheek.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: January 1971
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATKINS, Hollis (1941 )    RJB 285
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Mississippi. Recalls his teenage interest and involvement in the Freedom Rides and voter registration efforts. Discusses his role as a Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) field secretary and trainer in Mississippi in the early 1960s. Describes his work (and subsequent repeated arrests and beatings) in the escalating voter registration movement in Macon County. Delineates the responsibilities of SNCC's Bob Moses (voter registration) and Marion Barry (direct action). Comments on the relationship between SNCC staff and Medgar Evers of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and on the NAACP's role in the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO). Chronicles the evolution of the Freedom Vote project--debating the pros and cons of white northern students' involvement in it, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Discusses the origins and objectives of the Child Development Group of Mississippi, citing reasons for SNCC's disapproval of the program.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATKINS, Terry (n.d.)    RJB 651
Administrative assistant, Watts Labor Committee for Community Action, Los Angeles, California. Talks primarily about her father's (Ted Watkins) role as director of the nonprofit center and about the center's multifaceted functions and programs aimed at providing vocational, agricultural, and clerical training to the people of Watts, especially the youth, and restoring the economy of the riot-torn areas.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATTS, Daniel H. (n.d.)    RJB 516
Editor-in-chief, Liberator magazine. Discusses Liberator, its origins, initial thrust, circulation, operational difficulties. Recalls ideological differences with Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses various factions and theories of Black nationalism. Comments on anti-Semitism in the Black community. Gives origin and purpose of Freedom Now Party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WEAVER, Robert (1907-deceased, n.d.)    RJB 377
Former Secretary, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Two interviews. First interview concentrates on circumstances surrounding his appointment as Secretary, necessity of integrated housing, problems of public housing, his meeting with the delegation from the Poor People's Campaign, lobbying techniques used to effect the fair housing portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, and assessment of his tenure as Secretary. Second interview deals with fair housing portion of Civil Rights Act of 1968 including its origin, drafting, administration, support, opposition, introduction into the Senate. Also discusses his opposition to housing bill that would allow private sponsors to rehabilitate or buy homes for resale to lower income persons.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WEAVER, Rosetta (n.d.) RJB 557
President, Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC), Bernard M. Baruch College. Shares her experiences as a Black American living and working in Cuba and Ghana. Describes her OIC fundraising work and the programs at the Center.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 4, 1970
Format; Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WELSH, Mike (n.d.), joint with    RJB 378
NOLAN, David

Executive secretary, Southern Student Organizing Committee.
Interviewer: Shatz
Date: Format: Transcript, 68, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WESCHLER, Stuart (1942- )    RJB 106
Associate director, Baltimore chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discussion of his activities with CORE--its freedom rides, voter registration experiences in the South, and urban activities in Baltimore, Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 15, 1970
Format: Transcript, 154 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WESLEY, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 519
Executive director, Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. Discusses Carter G. Woodson's relationship to the Association including its organization September 1915; launching of Journal of Negro History, 1916; Negro History Week; founding of Negro History Bulletin, 1937. Recalls funding of Association in early years. Discusses Congressional efforts to establish National Commission on Afro-American History.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITE, Andrew (n.d.)    RJB 93
Minister. Executive secretary-treasurer, Division of Christian Education, African Methodist Episcopal Church. Recalls his attack on the Red Cross' discriminatory policy of separating the blood of white and Black donors. Discusses school desegregation activities in Nashville, Tennessee, prior to 1954 Supreme Court decision. Relates the differences in Nashville in the area of "enlightened progress" from his arrival in 1948 to the present.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITE, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 660
Member, Student Council, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses his military experiences as a soldier, stateside and in Viet Nam.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: November 9, 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITECLOUD, Jim (n.d.)    RJB 651
Vice-director, Los Angeles (California) Indian Center. Describes the historic functions and future plans of the Indian Center in providing services to Native Americans who migrate to urban areas from the reservations. Describes conditions on the reservations and the diversity of Indian groups.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 8 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILCOX, Preston (n.d.)    RJB 205
Former professor of social work, Columbia University. Director, Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Service Corporation (Educational Affiliate). Discusses "myth" of integration and why he supports quality Black public schools. Suggests reasons for school decentralization and community control. Discusses curriculum of four year community-controlled and community-oriented college planned for the Bedford-Stuyvesant area. Comments on campus dissent at Columbia University.
Interviewer: Jim Leeson
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILDER, Lawrence Douglas (aka L. Douglas) (1931- )    RJB 612
State senator, Richmond, Virginia. Discusses his legislative priorities, problems of being the only Black senator, welfare reform and lack of employment opportunities in Richmond.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILEY, George (1931-deceased) RJB 335/679
Executive director, National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). In the first of two interviews Wiley relates his involvement as faculty advisor to student groups at the University of California-Berkeley during the early 60s, and his later CORE affiliation in Syracuse, NY, focusing on public housing issues. In the second interview he contrasts his New England upbringing with his National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) voter registration experiences in rural Virginia, his Army officer status with his community activist role, and his desire to pursue a career as a research chemist with his commitment to civil rights work. Identifies his early civil rights influences and recalls his first impressions of CORE's philosophies, tactics, and activists. Traces his climb within that organization from the local to the national level, discussing his relationships with CORE leaders Julius Hobson, Marvin Rich, James Farmer, and Floyd McKissick, and appraising their effectiveness and program initiatives. Recalls his duties as CORE's Administrative Director from 1965-66. Explains his ideological differences with McKissick.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; James M. Mosby Jr.
Dates: January 20, 1968, 1970
Format: Transcripts, 92 pages; 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILKINS, Roger (n.d.)    RJB 20
Director, Community Relations Service, U. S. Department of Justice. Details the function, purpose and some activities of his department, related to discriminatory and/or minority group problems.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WILKINS, Roy (1901-1981)    RJB 550
Executive director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses origin and objectives of NAACP. Recalls when he came to the national office. Remembers outstanding persons with Association including W. E. B. DuBois, Walter White, Thurgood Marshall. Discusses organization's role in improving working conditions for Blacks, Montgomery bus boycott, voter registration, sit-in movement, school desegregation, civil rights legislation, A. Philip Randolph's planned March on Washington, 1941; challenge of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. Explains why he opposed Black Power slogan. Comments on Adam Clayton Powell.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Dates: April 29, 1970 and May 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILKS, Gertrude (1927- )    RJB 461
Founding member, Mothers for Equal Education, Palo Alto, California. Discusses origin and activities of her group, which was formed to secure better education for Black students. Recalls her "sneak-out program" in which students from her community lived in other areas and attended schools there for a period of time. Discusses Nairobi High, a private school she organized for Blacks, initially with volunteer staff and community funds.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 95 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Franklin H. (n.d.)    RJB 632
President, Phelps-Stokes Fund. Former U. S. ambassador to Ghana. Former civil rights attorney, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Describes the racial climate and identifies Black issues on the West Coast during the 1950s. Discusses his terms as San Francisco NAACP president and as California's assistant attorney general. Recalls his involvement in Republican Party politics during the Stevenson/Eisenhower race. Explains how and why he was later lured to Washington to help set up the Peace Corps, serving as its African regional director; and from there to serve as member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations. Describes his duties, challenges, and achievements in both roles. Discusses his ambassadorship to Ghana: how he lobbied for the job, the Ghanaian economic and political climate, his impressions of and encounters with president Kwame Nkrumah, and his observations of the coup that overthrew Nkrumah. Notes that attempts on Nkrumah's life began soon after Nkrumah announced plans to visit North Viet Nam to help negotiate resolution of the Viet Nam War. Appraises Nkrumah's effectiveness and shortcomings. Comments on the CIA's presence in Ghana and disputes the American media's accounts of the coup. Explains why he left foreign service to head Columbia University's Urban Center; notes the Center's purpose and programs. Identifies his pet projects at Phelps-Stokes and discusses the foundation community's support for civil rights efforts. Traces the evolution of the Black struggle for civil rights and equal opportunity. Discusses the conditions in America's urban ghettos and offers solutions to urban crises. Offers general comments on the War on Poverty, the War in Viet Nam, New York City Black politics, and on improving communication and unity among Blacks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, James O. (1923- )    RJB 118
Northeast chairman, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discusses activities, tactics and strategy of Philadelphia CORE including its role in the termination of the Black face Mummer's Day Parade. Examines the life of a Black man in Philadelphia. Discusses 1962- 1963 CORE schism.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 102 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, John A. (Deceased n.d.)    RJB 305
Author. Responds to questions about the roles and responsibilities of Black writers and comments on the dilemmas they face. Identifies white writers whose work has influenced him. Discusses his own published novels and works-in-progress. Gives his views on the economic exploitation and oppression of Black people in Africa and throughout the Diaspora, and on Europeans' perceptions of race. Debates the validity of the Black separatist movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Maurice (1929- )    RJB 671
Professor, Military Service, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses his military career and his experiences as an ROTC instructor at Howard. Assesses the campus/student mood and Howard students' general reactions to and feelings about ROTC. Describes the Howard ROTC program. Comments on the level of racial awareness in the Army and its efforts to accommodate Black service personnel as a result of the civil rights movement. Shares views on traditional civil rights groups, Black nationalist and separatist movements, Black Power, and social-class issues among Blacks. Declines comment on the justness of the Viet Nam War.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Robert F. (n.d.)    RJB 588
Former director of the Monroe (North Carolina) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Former president, Republic of New Africa. Chronicles the discriminatory treatment he experienced while serving in the Marine Corps. Traces the history of Monroe (Union County), North Carolina Blacks' armed resistance movement to white racism from the 1940s through the 1960s. Describes his role and mission as leader of a "fighting branch" of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP) in that community, which advocated militaristic Black self- defense tactics and an uncompromising civil rights position. Describes the activities of the branch, its programs, organizational structure, membership, and conflicts with NAACP national leadership figures (particularly Roy Wilkins and Daisy Bates). Describes numerous violent encounters of Blacks with white supremacist groups and police, specifically recalling four attempts on his life. Relates the situation that led to his 6-month suspension from the NAACP and the branch's being cut off from NAACP support. Contrasts white and Black media coverage of the conflict in Union County, and describes The Crusader, a publication published by Black activists there. Notes the supportive international coverage his group received, the far-flung responses to their calls for material aid, and visits from foreign journalists. Explains how and why Blacks in Monroe formed a National Rifle Association-chartered gun club and resorted to openly carrying weapons. Assesses the effects of the presence of white and Black pacifists who organized a nonviolent demonstration in Monroe in August 1961. Gives his account of the riots that followed when white hate groups mounted a united assault on the protesters, a situation that led to his fleeing North Carolina and going into exile to avoid federal prosecution. Describes his experiences and activities in exile in Cuba (5 years) and China (3 years). Discusses the political, racial, and economic climate in Cuba; focuses on the events surrounding Cuban revolutionary hero Che Guevara's disappearance. Explains why and how he left Cuba. Contrasts the reception and treatment he received in Cuba with that in China; also contrasts the people and the two forms of communism in these two nations. Recalls his visit with Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi. Contrasts his experiences in Cuba and China with his experiences in African nations en route back to the U.S. Explains why he decided to return to America; describes efforts by diplomatic officials to get him to denounce Black militancy and work with Martin Luther King Jr.. Describes the events of his arrest upon arrival in Detroit. Details legal aspects of his struggle to avoid being extradited back to North Carolina. Comments on his en absentia roles in the Republic of New Afrika (RNA) and RAM (Revolutionary Action Movement). Cites reasons for his increasing belief in Black separatism. Notes changes in race relations and integration in Monroe and nationwide that occurred during his exile, and speculates on future developments.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 223 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILMORE, Gayraud S. (n.d.)    RJB 292
Race relations specialist, Department of Social Justice, United Presbyterian Church. Recalls his involvement in civil rights activities, from the 1930s as a student at Lincoln University working with the Student Christian Movement and speaking on academic freedom and race relations; to the 1950s as a United Presbyterian Church (UPC) minister, and later as chairman of the UPC's Division of Church and Race. Explains the duties of his present office. Describes the activities of the UPC generally and his agency specifically in social justice, civil rights, and urban renewal efforts--focusing primarily on the church's financial support of church and lay groups. Discusses the advent and thrust of the interdenominational National Committee of Negro Churchmen; states that group's positions on Black Power and the role of the church in the Black community. Describes the antidiscrimination/antiracism activities of the UPC's suburban action centers. Interview concludes with interviewer reading from a descriptive brochure about the Council on Church and Race (COCAR).
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45, 46, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions; Standard

WILMORE, Jacques (1926- )    RJB 316
Director, Northeast field office, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Formerly, director, Memphis Field Office, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Recalls events that changed the Memphis sanitation strike into a civil rights issue. Examines various attitudes in Black community concerning the strike. Discusses role of Civil Rights Commission in garbage strike of 1968.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, Camille (n.d.)    RJB 529
Student, Kent State University. Recalls the Kent State Black student organization's campus activities and shares both her own and the Black Student Union's responses to the murders of white student antiwar demonstrators there and at Jackson State.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, Charles E. (n.d.)    RJB 529
General counsel, California State Fair Employment Practices Commission. Chronicles his role in drafting fair employment practices and fair housing legislation as a member of the Legal Redress Committee of the San Francisco National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls his most significant legal battles to integrate Blacks into housing, schools, employment after WWII. Describes his duties as a member of the California Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) since 1960. Discusses the range of interests and functions of the FEPC and its interactions with "radical" or "militant" constituent groups. Comments on Black community control, the Black separatist movement, and the future of traditional civil rights groups.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, John (ca. 1942- )    RJB 541
Former field secretary and member, National Executive Committee. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Chairman, National Black Anti-War Draft Union (NBAWDU). Chronicles his civil rights/desegregation activism in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, first as a student at Bowie State College organizing Students Appeal for Equality (SAFE) and working with SNCC; and later in Princess Anne County communities organizing sit-ins, mass meetings, demonstrations, and biracial committees. Describes the increasingly violent nature of Black-white conflict as civil rights activism accelerated in the county, noting a lack of support for direct action efforts offered by the local Black middle-class. Discusses the ideology, financial base, and activities of the Black Panther Party, claiming it originated as a SNCC spin-off group in Alabama but gathered momentum in California. Notes ideological differences between Stokely Carmichael and Eldridge Cleaver. Elaborates on Pan-Africanism, Black Power and community control, and Black-white alliances. Offers comments on racism and capitalism generally.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WINGATE, Livingston (n.d.)    RJB 535
Former executive director, HARYOU-ACT (Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited). Discusses origins of HARYOU and ACT and their subsequent unification. Recalls the development of the program and some of its problems. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of anti-poverty programs for Blacks.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WIRTZ, Willard W. (1912- )    RJB 367
Secretary, U. S. Department of labor. Referring repeatedly to the findings of the Kerner Commission report, Wirtz broadly discusses the roots of poverty, detailing his views on the responsibilities of government, the private sector, civil rights groups, and the poor themselves. Weighs the effects of rising expectations of the poor about antipoverty programs against the realities of limited or reduced appropriations for and enforcement of these programs. Discusses significant aspects of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1965, the Green Amendment to it, federal manpower training programs, and other antipoverty programs. Discusses the meaning of the term "maximum feasible participation of the poor." Recalls Labor Department officials' meetings with representatives of the Poor People's Campaign during its 1968 March on Washington, recounting the groups' demands and assessing the effects of the march on national attitudes and opinion.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: December 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WORKMAN, William D. (n.d.)    RJB 257
Editor, The State, a Columbia, South Carolina newspaper. Author, Case for the South, which attempts to explain Southern views on school desegregation and race relations. Discusses methods used to circumvent the Supreme Court school decision, 1954. Reviews law suits that challenged separate but equal education in his state and the judicial decision that opened the Democratic primary to Blacks. Discusses his book.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: July 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WORTHY, William (n.d.)    RJB 520
Newspaper correspondent, Baltimore Afro-American. States his philosophy of journalism. Comments on preference for covering international news rather than domestic affairs. Gives history of Freedom Now Party including reasons for ineffectiveness. Discusses travels in China and Cuba. Comments on role of "white left."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WRIGHT, Isaac (n.d.)    RJB 665
Equipment Specialist, U. S. Marine Corps, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Recalls his military career and World War II experiences, highlighting incidents of discrimination and racial confrontation between Blacks of his Army unit, the "experimental" 76th Coast Artillery battalion of highly technologically skilled Black recruits, and white troops and civilians. Discusses the impact of Black soldiers' involvement in the war on race relations in the U.S. afterwards, and contrasts the experiences of Black WWII veterans with Black Viet Nam veterans. Comments on Black urban gang violence and police-Black community relations in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WRIGHT, James Skelly (1911-1988)    RJB 298
Judge, U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, District of Columbia. Recalls highlights of his legal career: his role as a prosecuting attorney in the "Louisiana Scandal"-Huey Long cases of the 1930s and 40s; his Supreme Court representation of Willie Francis (a Black death-row prisoner whose case rested on Wright's argument [the first ever] of the death penalty as "cruel and unusual" punishment); his role as a judge in overturning Louisiana State University law school's segregationist admissions policy; and his rulings to desegregate New Orleans's public schools and transportation systems. Discusses the significance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision and his personal reactions to it. Gives examples of white southerners' noncompliance, backlash, and evasive tactics to avoid desegregation mandates. Stresses the importance of leveraging funding to achieve compliance. Traces the sources of his commitment to integration and social justice and assesses the personal price of his legal decisions. Offers general comments on the impact and future direction of the civil rights movement and the role of the courts in furthering it.
Interviewer: Mary Gardner Jones
Date: September 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted and cited. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author's heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WRIGHT, Michael (1941- )    RJB 170
Discusses his experiences as a Coordinator for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the North and South. Describes results of administration's denial of student demands at Tuskegee Institute, 1968.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from the oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

WRIGHT, Robert E. (n.d.)    RJB 239
Former field worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Alabama and Mississippi. Discusses his Harvard experiences of the 1960s and the challenges he and other Black American and African students there (and at Radcliffe) faced in organizing an exclusively Black student organization at Harvard. Recalls the goals and achievements of that group. Reflects on his three summers (1963-1965) spent working with SNCC in Mississippi: his arrival in Jackson on the day Medgar Evers was shot; his reactions to police violence against Black demonstrators; his voter registration activities in rural communities; his recruiting activities for the Freedom Summer project; and his roles as chair of the Civil Rights Coordinating Committee at Harvard and later as a member of the Law Students' Civil Rights Research Council. Discusses SNCC's approach to community organizing and explains how territories were assigned. Assesses the significance of the Freedom Summer and its outgrowths. Explains the "parallel structure" concept that guided the Freedom Vote project and the development of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, and chronicles the growth of these two efforts. Discusses SNCC's role in soliciting/providing financial support for Black farmers' cooperatives in Alabama. Gives his impressions of SNCC leaders Bob Moses, Jim Forman, Timothy Jenkins, and Stokely Carmichael.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: July 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WRIGHT, Stephen J. (n.d.)    RJB 712
Chairman, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project and vice president, College Entrance Examination Board. Discusses matters related to the internal establishment of the Project. A former college president and dean (Fisk, Hampton and Bluefield) expresses his views on student activism. Appraises progress in civil rights, particularly in the field of education.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1973
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WURF, Jerry (n.d.)    RJB 324
International president, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO. Gives background on the integrated history of AFSCME (the Association of Federal, State, County and Municipal Employees). Describes how workers' demands for union protection and recognition led to a massive and violent confrontation between a Black community and the white power structure in Memphis. Explains why sanitation workers' strike leaders decided to use a combination of union and civil rights movement strategies and to what ends. Recalls the negotiations with city officials, his own role in that process, and that of key others such as Mayor Loeb and local Black ministers. Reflects on the significance and impact of the Memphis movement on Martin Luther King, Jr., and assesses the impact of King's presence and death on the situation locally. Estimates the monetary cost of the strike and its economic results.
Interviewer: James J. Mosby Jr.
Date: October 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YANCEY, P. Q. (Johnnie) (n.d.)    RJB 126
Adult civil rights protester in Atlanta during the student demonstrations in the early 1960's.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Andrew (1932- )    RJB 32/706
Former executive vice president, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Representative (D.-Georgia), U. S. Congress.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Edward Thompson III
Dates: July 16, 1968; December 20, 1972
Format: Transcripts, 32 pages; 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Jack H., Sr. (n.d.), joint with    RJB 685
HALL, Carsie

Attorney. Former president, Jackson (Mississippi) Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Pete (n.d.)    RJB 386
Newspaperman, reported authority on the Ku Klux Klan. Characterizes Klan as the "white ghetto." Discusses Klan as a social movement. Examines schism between "moderate" and "militant" North Carolina Klansmen. Describes grievances and socio-economic plight of Klan, explaining why the poverty programs did not aid rural white South.
Interviewer: Will D. Campbell
Date: August 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Quentin (n.d.)    RJB 158
Physician. Chairman, Medical Committee for Human Rights. Describes purpose, origin, and structure of his organization, which evolved from Southern civil rights workers' need for medical care. Relates role of his group in protest demonstrations. Discusses organization's present programs in Northern ghettos. Examines discrimination in Chicago hospitals.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Whitney M., Jr. (1921-1971)    RJB 551
Executive Director, National Urban League. Recalls experiences in the Army in World War II that influenced his decision to become a social worker. Describes his civil rights activities in Atlanta, Georgia in the 1950's which paved the way for the student movement and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Discusses his relationship with many of the leaders of the student movement such as Lonnie King and John Mack. Chronicles the changes that have occurred in the Urban League over time.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: May 6, 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

ZELLNER, Dorothy (n.d.)    RJB 684
Former press aide Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). States reasons for joining SNCC. Concentrates on relations between Black and white members (1961-64) and the decline of SNCC.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby
Date: May 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ZINN, Howard (1922- )    RJB 99
Author and historian. Briefly outlines his career to date. Also discusses his involvement in the desegregation crisis in the South during the early 1960's.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 96 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from the oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

ZORZA, Richard (1949- )    RJB 592
Coordinator, Peace Action Committee, Harvard University. Discusses his organization, its goals and activities and relations with the community surrounding the University. Comments on the student strike at Harvard, including the role of Black students, effect of slain students at Jackson State College on Harvard community, and influence of demonstrations at Harvard on other universities.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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