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1960s Retrospective - Student Discontent and Activism Nationwide

Student Discontent and Activism Nationwide
"In the act of resistance, the rudiments of freedom are already present." - Angela Davis

Page Index:


Carawan, Guy and Candie Carawan. We Shall Overcome! Songs of the Southern Freedom Movement.  New York: Oak Publications, 1963. (Divinity, Afro-American Collection,  M1629 C2 W4 1963)

Chalmers, David Mark. And the Crooked Places Made Straight: the Struggle for Social Change in the 1960s. Baltimore; John Hopkins University Press, 1991.

Foster, Julian. Protest! Student Activism in America. New York: Morrow, 1969. (Founders  LA229 F63)

Gurin, Patricia. Black Consciousness, Identity, and Achievement: A Study of Students in Historically Black Colleges. New York: Wiley, 1975. (Business, Founders LC 2781 G79)

Kessler, Lauren. After All These Years: Sixties Ideals in a Different World. New York: Thunder's mouth Press, 1990. (Founders, E846 K45 1990)

Schwab, Joseph Jackson. College Curriculum and Student Protest. Chicago: University of Chicago  Press, 1969. (Founders, LB3609 S325)

Sekayi, Dia N.R.. African American Intellectual-Activists; Legacies in the Struggle. New York: Garland Pub., 1997. (UGL, E185.86 S45 1997)

Vargus, Ione D. Revival of Ideology: The Afro-American Society Movement. San Francisco: R & E Research Associates, 1977. (Founders and  Social Work LC 2781 V37)

United States, President's Commission on Campus Unrest. The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest. New York: Arno Press, 1970 (UGL,  LC Core Collection, LA229 A54 1970B)


"American Negro in College, 1961-1962."  Crisis 69 (August- September 1962) :402-411.

Blake, J. H. "Black University and Its Community."  Negro Digest 17 (March 1968) : 28-31.

Boykin, L. L.  "Adjustment of 729 Negro College Students as Revealed by the Berneuter Personality 
Inventory."  Negro Education Review 11 (January 1960) : 43-47.

Brogan, D.W. "The Student Revolt," Encounter [Great Britain] 31, no. 178 (1968) : 20-25.
Comments on the causes and nature of the student revolt of the 60s.

Cole, Spurgeon,  Robert, L. Williams.  (Section D). "Scholastic Attitudes of Southern Negro
Students."  Journal of Negro Education 38 no.1 (Winter 1969) 74.

"College Integration: Asset or Liability."  Sepia  13 (December 1964) : 52-55.

Dickinson, James C. "The Case for Black Student Power," National Association of Student Personnel Administrators,  6, no. 4 (April 1969) :  189-200.

DuBrul, P. "Relevance of Anger."  Liberation 5  (November 1960) : 15-16.

Flacks, Richard. review of The Conflict of Generations: The Character and Significance of Student Movements by Lewis S. Feuer,  Journal of Social History  4, no.2 (1970) : 141-153.
Feuer shows a biased view against the younger generation.  The author suggests other views.

"Frat President,"  Ebony, November 1961, p. 76-77.

Gaier, Eugene. L, William A. Watts. “ Current Attitudes and Socialization Patterns of White and Negro Students Entering College”. Journal of Negro Education 38 (Autumn 1969) : 342-350.

Hagrett, Andrew J. “Religious Attitudes as Expressed by Students of Savannah State College." Journal of Negro Education 20 no. 2 (1951) : 237-240. 

Harding, Vincent.  "Black Students and the Impossible Revolution,"  (Part 2.)  Ebony, September 1969, p. 97-98.

Hare, N.  "Behind the Black College Student Revolt,"  Ebony, August 1967, p. 58-61.

Henry, O. L. "Campus Confrontation."  Crisis 76 (April 1969) : 165-168.

Himes, Joseph S., A. E. Manly. “The Success of Students at a Negro Liberal Arts College”.  The Journal of Negro Education 19 no.4 (1950) : 466-473.

Holmes, H.  "My First Year at the University of Georgia."  Sepia 11 (May 1962) : 44-45.

"How Moral Are Our Co-eds? Survey by Ebony,"  Ebony, July 1952, p. 100-104.

Hunter, Charlayne. “ Black Colleges and the Black Mood”. Southern Education Report 4 (May 1969) : 28-31.

Kaplan, M. and R. W. White. "Birth of a Student Movement."  Liberation 5 (June 1960) : 12-13.

Kazin, Michael. "Some Notes on S.D.S.," American Scholar 38, no. 4 (1969) : 644-655.
A brief survey of the growth of the American student movement.  Includes major events, organizations, and leaders.   

"A Look at Our Students in Integrated Colleges."  Sepia 9 (May 1961) : 34-37.

McClain, Edwin. W.  "Personality Characteristics of Negro College Students in the South--A Recent
Appraisal."  Journal of Negro Education 36 no.3 (Summer 1967) 320-325.

McDowell, Sophia F.,  Gilbert A., Lowe Jr., and  Doris A. Dockett,  "Howard University's Student Protest Movement,"  Public Opinion Quarterly 34, no.3 (1970) :  383-388. 
After the settlement of the1968 strike, students demanded fuller participation in academic programs.

McWorter, G. A.  "Struggle Ideology and the Black University."  Negro Digest 18 (March 1969) : 15- 21.

Moral Values Among Negro College Students: A Study of Cultural and Racial Determinants."       PHYLON 23 (Fall 1962) : 286-293.

Orbell, John M., "Protest Participation among Southern Negro College Students," American Political Science Review 61, no. 2 (1967) : 446-456.
Report of a survey conducted in 1962, about two years after the sit-in movement began. 

Peterson, Iver. "Oh, the Times They Have A-Changed," New York Times, 41 October 17, 1999, sec. 1.
Students enrolled in a course on the1960s at Connecticut's Fairfield University compare students of the 60s with their generation.     

Racine, D.A.  "Howard, La Plus Grande Universite Noire Americaine  [Howard, the largest American Black University]," Esprit [France] 27, no. 5 (1969) : 776-789.

Rivers, F. E. "Black Nationalism on the Campus.  Crisis 75 (April 1968) : 122-125.

Skolnik, Jerome. "Student Protest,"  AAUP Bulletin 55, no. 3 (1969) : 309-326.
An overview of the unique qualities of the student activism of the 1960s.

Student Strikes 1968-69."  Black Scholar 1 ( January-February 1970) : 65-75.

Vittenson, Lillian K. "Areas of Concern to Negro College Students as Indicated by Their Responses 
to the Mooney Problem Check List." The Journal of Negro Education 36 (Winter 1967) 51-57.

Warren, Robert Penn. "Two for SNCC," Commentary 39, no. 4 (1965) : 38-48.
A report on interviews with two activists in the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).

Wilcox, P.  "On the Black University."  Negro Digest 19 (December 1969) : 19-26.

Theses and Dissertations

Bryant, Otis. "The Howard University Student Protest Movement: A Quest for Student Empowerment, 1965-1970."  MA thesis, Howard University, 1992.

Roy, Jerrold Winnbish.  "Student Activism and the Historically Black University: Hampton Institute and Howard University, 1960-1972."  Ph.D. dissertation,  Harvard University,  2000. 

ERIC Documents
Unless otherwise noted, ERIC documents are available on microfiche in the Current Periodicals Reading Room of the Undergraduate Library.

Orum, Anthony M. "Black Students in Protest: A Study of the Origins of the Black Student Movement,"  The Arnold and Caroline Rose Monograph Series in Sociology (1970) (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED073185, Document Not Available from EDRS, availability: American Sociological Association, 1722 N Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036)
A sociological rather than an historical treatment of the role of black college students in the civil rights movement.

"The Report of the President's Commission on Campus Unrest,"  (1970) ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED083899.
A report that examines the campus unrest of the 1960s.  Recommendations are suggested for the President, the government, the law enforcement agencies, the university, and the students.

1960s Retrospective Links

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