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Ralph J. Bunche Collection

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

ACEVADO, Jorge (n.d.)    RJB 319
Executive Director, Santa Clara County Economic Opportunities Commission. Discusses the Mexican-American in this country, including migration to the Southwest American; their role in U. S. history; problems of identity, discrimination, political effectiveness. Discusses aid to the Mexican-American community and matters of unionization, political organization, and relationship with the Catholic Church.
Interviewer: Sy Berg
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



AIKENS, Lenton (n.d.)    RJB 652
Director, Black Organization for Rights and Independence (BORI). Elaborates on the group's primary goal--Black acquisition and control of several Southern States in America. Comments on other Black nationalist groups. Discusses one of the organization's short-range projects; a preventive medicine clinic in the Black ghetto.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: October 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALEXANDER, Clifford (1933- )    RJB 370
Appointed chairman, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, June 1967. Describes subtle methods of employment discrimination used by the business community. Suggests how Federal government can combat job discrimination. Discusses accomplishments of EEOC and the greatest hindrance to its operation: the lack of cease and desist authority. Lists new employment opportunities for minority groups.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 5, 1969
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALEXANDER, Felton S. (1929- )    RJB 179
Executive Director, National Urban League of Greater Dallas. Discusses conditions in Dallas that led to establishment of the Dallas League. Describes "militant" activities of chapter.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALEXANDER, Fred (n.d.)    RJB 407
Member, City Council, Charlotte, North Carolina. Discusses reason for entering politics; campaign strategy; political philosophy; accomplishments in office; relationship with white colleagues. Recalls his role in the desegregation of public facilities in Charlotte during the 1960's. Comments on the struggle for leadership among Blacks and the lack of traditional ministerial leadership in the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALEXANDER, Kelly (n.d.)    RJB 399
State President, North Carolina chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses NAACP programs in North Carolina, including voter registration, employment, and school desegregation. Compares NAACP efforts in the state with those of other civil rights organizations. Explains why he is against Black separatism.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968 Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALEXANDER, Sidney (n.d.)    RJB 487
Administrator, anti-poverty programs, Sharkey County, Mississippi. Discusses need for such programs in his area, lack of participation by poor whites, and harassment of anti-poverty workers by some of local population. Recalls voter registration activities. Comments on Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALINSKY, Saul (1909-1972)     RJB 110
Executive Director, Industrial Areas Foundation, Chicago, Illinois. Discusses life in Jewish ghettos of Chicago and Los Angeles during early 1900's. Traces origin of Industrial Areas Foundation. Discusses tactics used to organize the community and changing major social issues. Comments on Black Power concept and early Negro militants.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALLEN, Ernie (1942- )    RJB 347
Co-founder and editor, Soulbook, a Black revolutionary journal. Discusses scope and production of Soulbook. Comments on various philosophies of Black nationalism and revolutions. Recalls his role in organizing Afro-Americans Against the War in Vietnam.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 15, 1968
Format: Transcript, 54, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALLEN, Ivan (1910- )    RJB 132
Mayor, Atlanta, Georgia. Relates problems of dealing with and enforcing local desegregation in public accommodations. Discusses his Congressional testimony supporting the Public Accommodations Section of the Civil Rights Bill.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALLEN, Michele P. (1944- )    RJB 345
Former leader, Afro-American Student Movement, Fisk University. Member, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Nashville, Tennessee chapter. One of the founders of Black Panther Party in California.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ALLEN, Robert (1942- )    RJB 342
Staff writer, The Guardian. Recalls his role in the protest demonstrations in Atlanta during the 1960's to desegregate public facilities. Deals at length with his anti-war activities and the organization of a Black anti-war group, Afro-Americans for Survival. Discusses his trip to North Vietnam. Discusses The Guardian: how he became a staff writer; policy changes; its readers. Comments on various aspects of Black nationalism.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AMADOR, Monico (n.d.)    RJB 140
Staff associate, Mexican-American Opportunities Center, San Jose, California. Defines purpose of center, which develops job openings for the disadvantaged within industry, and discusses the hesitancy of industrial community and union participation. Examines problems of Catholic Church's influence in Mexican-American community. Discusses police-Mexican-American relations.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: January 1967
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AMERSON, Lucius (n.d.)    RJB 48
First Negro elected sheriff, Tuskegee, Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: November 24, 1967
Status: Transcript, 17,20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


ANDERSON, Carl (1934- )    RJB 219
Associate Dean of Students, Howard University.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANDERSON, Constance E. (n.d.)    RJB 353
Teacher, New York City Public School System. Comments on experiences at City College of New York. Describes prejudices encountered while job-hunting. Analyzes philosophy of education. Comments on reasons for not joining teachers union, noting repercussions. Discusses internal policy conflicts at local PS 21. Describes involvement with children in a Chinatown school. Discusses parents' push for local community control of schools and excessive actions by police.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "A" (1947- )    RJB 177
Black high school graduate who participated in the Washington, D.C. riot of April 1968 following the death of Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "B" (1944- )    RJB 178
Black college drop-out who participated in the Washington, D. C. riot of April 1968 following the death of Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: April 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "C" (1947- )    RJB 186
Black unemployed high school drop-out who participated in the Washington, D. C. riot of April 1968 following the death of Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "D" (n.d.)    RJB 549
Leader, Black High School Alliance in New York City. Briefly allied his efforts with those of Columbia University's Black students who, in 1968, took over a campus building in order to protest the University's decision to erect a building at the site of a community park. Discusses chronology of events, as well as participation in other revolutionary activities in Harlem.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 45 minutes.
Restrictions: No reproduction


ANONYMOUS "E" (n.d.)    RJB 561
Black student participant in the campus strike at the University of Maryland, College Park campus, Spring of 1970. Discusses reasons for demonstrations, sincerity of the students and why he believes Blacks should not participate.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: May 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 6 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "F" (n.d.)    RJB 562
White student participant in the campus strike at the University of Maryland, College Park campus, Spring of 1970. Explains why he was active in the strike. Comments on the violence that occurred and the lack of Black student participants.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: May 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "G" (n.d.)    RJB 563
Student, University of Maryland, College Park campus, who was opposed to the strike and protest demonstrations during the Spring of 1970.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: May 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "H" (n.d.)    RJB 565
Black student, University of Maryland, who did not participate in the College Park campus strike in 1970.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: May 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 11 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "I" (n.d.)    RJB 568
Member, student strike committee, University of Maryland, College Park campus, during 1970 demonstrations. Discusses reasons for protest, participation of Black students, and ensuing reaction of administration.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "J" (n.d.)    RJB 569
Black student who did not participate in the campus disturbances, University of Maryland, College Park, in Spring of 1970. Comments on tactics and methods used by demonstrators and why he believes Blacks were not active in the student strike.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "K" (n.d.)    RJB 570
Black student participant in 1970 demonstrations at University of Maryland, College Park campus.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 11 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "L" (n.d.)    RJB 582
Student, Kent State University. Gives eyewitness account of confrontation between students and National Guard, May 1970. Discusses lack of Black participation in campus demonstrations. Comments on the effect of the Black United Students organization as a political force at the university.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANONYMOUS "M" (n.d.)    RJB 659
Black inmate of a jail in New York City involved in the prisoners' takeover of the eighth floor of the institution. Discusses prison life and events leading to the insurrection; course of the riot, including the making of weapons, tear gassing, police hostages; demands made by inmates.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: September 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ANRIG, Gregory (n.d.)    RJB 483
Former director, Equal Educational Opportunities Division Department of Health, Education and Welfare. In that capacity, served as chief administrator of Title IV of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Discusses the purpose of Title IV and its guidelines and difficulties in administering Title IV and Title VI. Describes procedure for developing desegregation plans for school districts. Comments on school decentralization.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: November 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



ANTHONY, Paul (1928- )    RJB 129
Executive Director, Southern Regional Council, a private, nonprofit research and information agency concerned with the development of the South and race relations in that area. Describes origin, function, and programs of the Council and the impact of some of its published reports.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



ARKI, Jay (n.d.)    RJB 598
Director, South Cleveland chapter, Federation of Black Nationalists, a city-wide organization. Discusses purpose, funding, and programs, which include education classes and drug abuse clinic.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ARONICA, Louis (n.d.)    RJB 45
Executive Director, Metropolitan Washington (D.C.) Fair Housing Council. Discusses the purpose and activities of his organization. Looks at housing problems in the metropolitan Washington area in terms of open occupancy, zoning, financing, construction, and other relevant concerns.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 90 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ARTHUR, Barbara (n.d.)    RJB 524
Former member, Black Panther Party. Discusses her activities and duties with the organization; its philosophy and programs; why she left the group. Recalls her candidacy for U. S. Senate with the Peace and Freedom Party (1968). Comments on her work in the "mission district" in San Francisco.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: March 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ASHFORD, Joyce (n.d.), see Dunlap RJB 597


ATKINS, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 622
Member, City Council, Boston, Massachusetts. Discusses his activities as acting executive secretary of the local chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Looks at the Black population in Boston, in terms of its size, education, employment and political astuteness. Discusses his efforts in establishing a "tradition of Black government" in his city and the training of Black politicians nationally.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ATKINSON, Albert B. (n.d.), joint with    RJB 36
SMITH, S
. Edward
Executive Director, Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO), Maryland office. Describes on-the-job training programs administered through his office. Looks at socio-economic situation of Blacks in Baltimore.
Interviewer:
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AUKOFER, Frank (1936- )    RJB 141
Journalist, Milwaukee Journal. Discusses race relations in his city including school desegregation, open housing, and a "5-hour riot" July 30, 1967.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AUSTIN, Ernest (1933- )    RJB 264
Staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference and coordinator of the Appalachian contingent of the Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AVEILHE, Clyde C. (ca. 1936)    RJB 220
Director of Student Activities, Howard University, Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 74 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


AYERS, Gary (ca. 1948)    RJB 238/658
President, Association of Men Students (1968-69), Howard University; public relations and fund-raising director, D. C. Project--community involvement program sponsored by Howard University Students. Discusses factors at the university that alienated students and administration. Discusses purpose, funding, administration and services of D. C. Project. Two interviews.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin; Allen Coleman
Date: June 29, 1968; November 23, 1970
Format: Transcripts, 61 pages and 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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BAILEY, Peter (1938- )    RJB 306
Associate Editor, Ebony magazine. Recalls his childhood as an "Army brat", his own service experience and his student days at Howard University. Describes activism in Harlem. Discusses Organization for Afro-American Unity and his close relationship with Malcolm X. Comments on Malcolm's trip to Africa. Describes and gives causes of Malcolm X's assassination.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 73 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



BAKER, Ella (1903-1986)    RJB 203
Staff member and consultant, Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF). Former staff member National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls origin and development of SCLC. Traces the rise to national prominence of Martin Luther King Jr., his administrative role and in SCLC and his association with staff members. Discusses SNCC, its origin, programs, changes in ideology, and association with SCLC. Gives background information on SCEF.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: June 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 98 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BALDWIN, Jessie (ca.1902- )    RJB 244
Sanitation worker, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses the Memphis garbage strike of 1968, why he believed it necessary, how it affected his family and the city.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BALLARD, Charles (ca. 1948- )    RJB 240
Director of an anti-poverty agency in Memphis, Tennessee. Gives his views on the 1968 Memphis garbage strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

BALLENTINE, Dennis (ca. 1950- )    RJB 567
Student, University of Maryland, College Park campus. Non- participant in student protest, 1970. Comments on student strategy, lack of participation by Blacks, methods used by police to restore normality to the campus.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: May 8, 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BANCROFT, Richard A. (1918- )    RJB 436
Lawyer. Former president, San Francisco branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Describes undergraduate and graduate experience at Howard University and involvement with activist groups such as the Liberal Club and the local chapter, NAACP. Discusses duties as a labor organizer in Washington, D. C. and cites examples of Black youth today. Discusses establishment of the San Francisco Human Relations Commission.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 7, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BANKS, James (n.d.)    RJB 504
Former Executive Director, United Planning Organization (UPO), Washington, D. C. Discusses the conception, purpose and funding of UPO, an anti-poverty agency that preceded the war on poverty. Gives major facets of program. Identifies root of poverty in Washington. Discusses structuring of program around neighborhood centers and response of local residents. Comments on lack of participation by poor whites in agency's program; declining interest in anti-poverty programs; achievements as Executive Director of UPO.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 2, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BANKS, Taunya (n.d.)    RJB 689
Director, Mississippi Center for Black Elected Officials. Discusses Center funding and objectives. Comments on problems of newly elected Black officials. Discusses Center's research functions.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 1, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restriction: Standard


BANNER, William A. (n.d.)    RJB 673
Professor of Philosophy, Howard University. Discusses student dissatisfaction at Howard during the late 60's leading to their challenge of General Lewis B. Hershey, Director, Selective Services. Comments on specific concerns of students and the change of presidents. Offers personal ideas of what a university should be.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: January 18, 1971
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BARBEE, Lloyd (1925- )    RJB 144
Member, State Assembly, Wisconsin. Chairman, Milwaukee School Integrating Committee (M.U.S.I. C.). Discusses anti-discrimination activities of local chapter of National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) (of which he was president). Relates M.U.S.I.C.'s role in seeking quality education for Blacks in Milwaukee, and discusses the city's administration.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BARBOUR, Charles (n.d.) RJB 624
Member, City Council, Charlottesville, Va. First Black so elected. Discusses organization and funding of his campaign, goals while in office, major political issues for Blacks in Charlottesville.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BARNES, Joe (n.d.)    RJB 677
Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Chairman of its Political Committee. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BARNES, Lois (1930- )    RJB 433
Education Chairman, San Francisco branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discussed the Association's activities in attempting to rid San Francisco of discriminatory inequities in its school system.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BARNET, Roosevelt (n.d.) RJB 481
Former Field Secretary, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Montgomery, Ala. First Assistant Director, Alabama Action Committee. Identifies the tactics, organizations, and major players involved in the civil rights activities that ensued in Alabama during and after the Montgomery bus boycotts. Discusses the activities of the Alabama Action Committee to obtain food and jobs for poor Blacks and whites in that state.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BARONI, Geno (1931-1984)    RJB 43
Executive Secretary, Archbishop's Committee on Community Relations, Archdiocese of Washington, D. C. Discusses the role of organized religion in solving the problems of urban change and the inner city.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 24, 1967
Format: Transcript, 78 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BARRY, Marion (1936- )    RJB 54
First Chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Assistant Director, Pride, Inc., a self-help work program in Washington, D. C. Recalls early sit-in activities as student in Tennessee with Nashville Student Movement. Discusses SNCC: origin at the Raleigh Conference; organization of freedom rides; voter registration; ideological differences within organization; role of white workers; funding; political activities. Discusses concept and program of Pride, Inc.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may not be read in the repository without the permission of the oral author. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BATISTE, Columbus (n.d.)    RJB 653
Director, Compton (California) Community Youth Center. Describes job placement service of the Center. Discusses efforts to involve parents in the schools. Suggests programs to improve quality of life in Compton.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BATSON, Ruth (1921- )    RJB 64
Associate Director, Metropolitan Council for Equal Opportunities (METCO), a federally funded school busing program operating in Boston.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon her death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BAUGH, Howard (1924- )    RJB 131
Black police lieutenant in Atlanta, Georgia. Discusses changing roles and attitudes towards Black policemen in the South. Relates his role as law officer during civil rights protests in Atlanta in early 1960's.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BECKER, William (n.d.) RJB 432
Former Director, Human Rights Commission, San Francisco, California. Recalls efforts to involve labor, Jewish, Black, Japanese, and Mexican organizations in the struggle to register minority voters, pass fair employment practices legislation, abolish discriminatory laws, and increase minority participation in state government in California during the 1950s and 60s.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BENJAMIN, Murdock (ca. 1951- ) RJB 542
Discusses major events in his life which led to his becoming an organizer for the Poor People's Campaign, including: his active participation in the Watts riots as youth of 17, the resulting imprisonment which covered a period of several years, the gradual desire upon release from prison, to work for better conditions for all "oppressed" people.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: March 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BENNETT, L. Howard (n.d.) RJB 412
Director, Civil Rights, Department of Defense. Comments on history of desegregation in armed forces. Describes efforts to integrate off-base facilities. Cites civilian pressures on military regarding civil rights. Describes impact of civil rights legislation on armed forces. Discusses South Vietnam racial incidents; percentage of Blacks killed in action; percentage of Black officers in the military.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BENNETT, Lerone (1928- )    RJB 34
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 7, 1967
Format: Incomplete transcript, 5 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BENNING, Dwight (n.d.), see Prentice Mckinney    RJB 146


BERNHAGEN, Wayne (n.d.)    RJB 142

President, Milwaukee Citizen's Civic Voice, "an organization... to solve inter-community problems facing Black and white residents." Discusses civil rights activities and the segregated school system in his city.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BERRIGAN, Philip (1923- )    RJB 50
Activist parish priest in Baltimore ghetto. Discusses role of his church in its environs and the economic conditions of his parishioners. Also discusses Baltimore chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BERRY, Edwin (n.d.) RJB 161
Executive Director, Chicago chapter, National Urban League. Describes programs for veterans. Discusses activities of his chapter in Chicago.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BEVEL, James (1936- )    RJB 222
Executive staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Describes the Poor People's Campaign, its creation and development, and the rise of Resurrection City. Discusses association with Martin Luther King Jr. Gives eyewitness account of King's death.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 6, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: CLOSED


BIRDSONG, Walter L. (n.d.)    RJB 656
Former Senator in the Howard University Student Association 1968- 1969 and former Vice President of the Liberal Arts Student Council 1969-1970.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: November 15, 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BIZELL, Leo (n.d.)    RJB 499
Student leader, Stanford University. Describes association with Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and the Black Panther Party. Explains activities of Black students at Merritt Junior College (Oakland). Discusses development of Black student unions and Black studies programs on several campuses. Explains reasons for growth of Black student body at Stanford.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: August 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 33 pages: tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BLACK, Charles A. (1940- )    RJB 29
Former Chairman, Atlanta Committee on Appeal for Human Rights, the organization that instituted the Atlanta Student Movement. Discusses strategy, targets, and results of the sit-ins and protest demonstrations inaugurated by his group.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BLACK, Lewis (n.d.)    RJB 60
Discusses his role in voter registration in Hale County, Alabama. Also relates activities of the Hale County Progressive Association.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: October 1967
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BLACK, Lucille (n.d.)    RJB 70
Staff member, national headquarters, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) since 1927. Reminisces about the NAACP under Walter White and with W. E. B. DuBois.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 1, 1967
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BLACKWELL, Unita (1933- )    RJB 279
Member, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) and National Council of Negro Women (NCNW). Describes MFDP's challenge to the regular Democrats at the 1964 National Democratic Convention. Discusses her activities with NCNW.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; cassette tape
Tape length: One hour
Restrictions: Standard




BOND, Julian (1940- ) RJB 133
State Representative, Georgia House of Representatives. Former communications director, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Reviews the Atlanta Student Movement. Gives an in-depth statement about SNCC: its origin, program, politics and members. Discusses his exclusion from the Georgia legislature and his role as a State Representative.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 91 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BOOKER, Reginald H. (1941 ) RJB 585
Chairman, Washington (D. C.) Construction Area Industry Task Force. Discusses experience with racism in the Army; sit-in activities with Julius Hobson; Washington branch of CORE: involvement with ACT, the Black United Front, the Emergency Committee for the Transportation Crisis and the Washington Construction Area Industry Task Force. Discusses Pan-Africanism in America. Analyzes Black participation in the Vietnam War.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 24, 1970
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BOONE, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 475
Executive Director, Alabama Action Committee, Montgomery, AL. Former field secretary, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Reflects on his involvement with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and other student organizing efforts in the early 1960s. Discusses the civil rights movement in a larger political context, targeting the Mafia, northern capitalists, the white power structure, and the FBI in the exploitation of rural Blacks and in the assassinations of prominent civil rights and progressive political figures.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BOOTHE, Mary (1945- )    RJB 274
Former worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Director, Greenwood Movement, Greenwood, Mississippi. Discusses the disintegration of SNCC in her area, citing the lack of local leadership as the prime factor. Also discusses her present organization, which focuses on jobs for Blacks in the local community.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BOUTELLE, Paul (1934- )    RJB 629
Member, Socialist Worker's Party. Candidate, New York's eighteenth Congressional district, 1970. Founder, Freedom Now Party, New York City, 1964. Describes association with Black Muslims and Malcolm X. Recalls efforts of the Committee to Aid the Monroe (N.C.) Defendants. Gives origins of Freedom Now Party. Discusses Black political parties in New York City. Analyzes Socialist Workers Party in relation to competition from Communists and Trotskyites. Comments on local Black United Front.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 120/155 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BOWIE, Harry (1935- )    RJB 311
State Director, Voter Education Program, Delta Ministry, Mississippi. Focuses on the evolution of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) as a local and national political force for Black Mississippians. Describes the activities of the Delta Ministry, its relationship to the FDP, and its activities to address severe hunger among the state's poor and to promote Black self-help efforts.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 8, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRADEN, Carl (1914- )
BRADEN, Ann (1924- ), joint interview    RJB 310
Executive Director, Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF); editor, Southern Patriot, SCEF house organ. Both Bradens, of Southern origin, discuss factors that changed their traditional values and ideas. Discuss origin and purpose of SCEF; problems in organizing and educating poor whites; editorial policy and clientele of Southern Patriot; journalist's role in society; effect of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on Blacks.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 111 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRANTON, Wiley (1923- ) RJB 371/502
Director, Community and Social Action Division, Alliance for Labor Action. Former Executive Director, United Planning Organization (UPO), an anti-poverty organization, Washington, D. C. First Director, Voter Education Project, Southern Regional Council. Civil rights attorney. Recalls his role as sponsor of the first known Negro to desegregate a Southern school, the University of Arkansas, in 1948. As chief counsel to the "Little Rock 9," gives legal background of that school desegregation case. Discusses purpose, funding, activities and results of the Voter Education Project. Looks at Mississippi as most difficult area for voter registration. Recalls organization of Council of Federated Organizations. Discusses the provisions of the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Recalls tenure as special assistant to two attorneys general under the Johnson Administration. Discusses programs and operations of UPO. Considers UPO's role in Federal anti-poverty programs.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr. for both interviews
Dates: January 16, 1969; October 20, 1969
Format: Transcripts, 78 pages; 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BREEZE, Brother (n.d.)    RJB 600
Co-director, Drug Abuse Center #1 Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses reasons for Center, funding, services, lack of aid and support from professionals in medical services, and effect of Center and its program on community.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: July 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BREMOND, Walter (n.d.)    RJB 349
President, Black Congress, an umbrella organization of representatives from Black action groups in Los Angeles, California, whose purpose is to "focus on reconstruction of the Black community in every area."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 11 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRITT, Travis (n.d.)     RJB 301
Relates his voter registration experiences as a member of the Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) in Macomb, Mississippi.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRITTON, Harvey (n.d.)    RJB 469
State field director, Louisiana chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses the Louisiana NAACP's efforts to reorganize following the lifting of a statewide ban against it. Interprets the racial and interracial divisions in Louisiana state politics and comments on the roles of several key Black and white political figures.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROOKS, Fred (1928- )    RJB 91
Former leader, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and organizer of the Liberation School, Nashville, Tennessee. Recalls early involvement in civil rights movement. Discusses changes in movement from 1962-67. Relates experiences during voter registration drive in Jonesboro, Louisiana. Discusses Deacons for Defense and Justice, organized by CORE in Jonesboro in 1964. Relates activities at Tennessee State University. Recalls testifying before Senator McClellan's sub-committee on investigations. Discusses Liberation School. Draws parallel between Vietnam conflict and fight of Blacks for right to control own lives. Discusses white involvement in movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BROOKS, Lela (1940- )    RJB 288
Vice President of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, Sunflower County, Mississippi. Discusses earliest civil rights activities in the County, voter registration efforts and her active participation in MFDP from its inception.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 8, 1968
Format: Cassette Tape
Tape length: 45 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BROOKS, Owen (1928- )    RJB 330
Director, Delta Ministry, Greenville, Mississippi. Discusses civil rights activities in Boston, Massachusetts. Discusses national Black leaders; history of Delta Ministry and its relationship with the National Council of Churches. Notes activities of organized labor in Mississippi. Analyzes "Black Power" slogan. Discusses role of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Compares 1943 Henry Wallace campaign with 1968 campaigns of Humphrey, Kennedy, McCarthy and Nixon.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 51, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Benjamin D. (1940- )    RJB 27
Representative, Georgia House of Representatives. Former leader in Atlanta Student Movement in early 1960's.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 16, 1967
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


BROWN, Edward (n.d.)    RJB 2
Relates how his student sit-in activities led to his expulsion from Southern University. Discusses the March on Washington (1963) and the ideological differences of its architects. Recalls circumstances surrounding the seating of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) at the Democratic National Convention. Discusses the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), its exodus from the traditional civil rights movement and the differences that developed between Black and white members.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 72 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Ewart (1946- )    RJB 354
President, Student Assembly, Howard University (1967-68), Washington, D. C. Discusses Black Power concept; conditions at Howard University from 1960 to present. Comments on powerlessness of faculty and unresponsiveness of administration. Explains relationship of the University to the Black community. Comments on limits of legitimate protest; civil disobedience; Black middle class; terms "Negro" and "Black."
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 74, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Jess R. (n.d.)    RJB 687
Veteran civil rights attorney, Jackson, Mississippi. Discusses many cases.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 2, 1970
Format: Transcript, 21, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, John, Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 197
Discusses the origin, structure, activities, and plans of the Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA), a community self- help training, action group.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Oscar, Sr. (ca. 1900- )    RJB 547
Attorney. One of the leaders of 49th State Movement during the 1930's. Organized first National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) college chapter. Former president, Chicago chapter, NAACP which fought restrictive covenants and aided Black residents in "all white neighborhoods." Former president, Chicago Negro Chamber of Commerce, which promoted and sponsored Black business. Recalls association with W. E. B. DuBois.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Otis (n.d.) RJB 286
Chairman of the Sunflower County Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Former member of Mississippi Freedom Labor Union. Recalls his civil rights activities in Sunflower City and County.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 8, 1968
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BROWN, Theodore E. (n.d.)    RJB 294
Executive Director, American Negro Leadership Conference on Africa. Comments on long association with A. Philip Randolph; involvement in trade union movement; involvement in affecting United States policies in Africa. Discusses travel in Africa, with special emphasis on Nigeria and Biafra, and attendance at sessions of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) Conference. Comments on Blacks in the cities and the youth rebellion.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWN, Willie L. (n.d.) RJB 465
Attorney, Member, California State Assembly. Describes civil rights activities and organizations in which he has been involved, including voter registration and fair housing drives in San Francisco. As member of Board of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), discusses need for change in the organization. Cites his principal legislative efforts in California State Assembly. Discusses reasons for public school decentralization.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard




BROWNE, Charles S. (n.d.)    RJB 698
Executive Director, Inner-City Business Improvement Forum, Detroit, Michigan. Traces origin of Improvement Forum, Blacks organizing to rebuild the Black business community. Discusses differences between Forum and New Detroit, Inc., a prestigious establishment organization which came into existence in the wake of the riot (and whose) objective was to try and renew Detroit.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWNE, Ernest C., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 694
Member, Common Council, Detroit, Michigan. Discusses recruiting and hiring of Black policemen in Detroit; responsibilities with health department; his campaign.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 8, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BROWNE, Robert S. (n.d.)    RJB 530
Concentrates on the idea of separatism as a means of Blacks gaining cultural unity and greater economic and political power. Discusses the need for a Black autonomous political force, James Foreman's Black Manifesto and proposes ceding of Southern states to Blacks.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 23, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRYANT, Baxton (n.d.)    RJB 233
Executive Director, Tennessee Council on Human Relations. Discusses activities of organization.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: July 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BRYANT, Ethel C. (n.d.) RJB 417
Executive Assistant to Mayor Samuel Yorty, Los Angeles, California. discusses 1969 mayoralty election including her role in Yorty's campaign, Black response to her efforts, the allegations of racism and conservatism in the campaign; Thomas Bradley, the Black candidate; Yorty's victory.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1969
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BUCKNER, Harold (n.d.)    RJB 583
Black President of the Student Government of Michigan State University. Discusses the powers and responsibilities of the position, student response to his election, and events that took place during his tenure. Reviews campus opposition to shootings at Kent State and Jackson State, effects of campus protests, and reaction of Black students to campus disorder. Analyzes motives of protesters and reaction of the administration to protest.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 1, 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 45 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BUFFINGTON, John (ca. 1941- )    RJB 312
Chairman, Clay County (Mississippi) Development Organization. Member, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Former member, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) national executive committee. Former member, Black Muslims. Discusses role in organizing Black and white workers into unions. Recalls confrontation between Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and "regulars" at Democratic convention 1968. Discusses expulsion of whites from SNCC. Reviews his experiences as a Black Muslim.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BUFORD, Kenneth L. (deceased) (n.d.)    RJB 22
Alabama state field director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). former member, Tuskegee City Council. Discusses his role in Tuskegee gerrymandering case and his activities as NAACP state field director.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 7 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository by persons engaged in serious research. No quotation or citation of this record may be made during my lifetime except with my written permission. No reproduction of this record, either in whole or in part, may be made by microphoto, typewriter, photostat, or any other device, except by me, my heirs, legal representatives, or assigns.


BUNCHE, Mrs. Ralph J. (n.d.)    RJB 711
Widow of Dr. Ralph J. Bunche. Discusses her recollections of incidents illustrating Dr. Bunche's deep interest and involvement in the problems of Black Americans. Gives an account of such experiences while Dr. Bunche was on the Howard University faculty. Recalls how he declined the opportunity of being Assistant Secretary of State because of the racial situation in Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: March 8, 1973
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BURBRIDGE, Thomas N. (ca. 1919- )    RJB 435
Former President, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), San Francisco chapter. Concentrates on his chapter's efforts to bring integration to the public schools in 1961 and to obtain employment opportunities for Blacks.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BURLEY, Ron (n.d.)    RJB 677
Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Minister of its security. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


BURNETT, Winston A. (n.d.) RJB 505
Chairman of the Board and founder of Winston Burnett Construction Company, Inc., New York. Describes the beginning and growth of the family business. Comments on local banking policies towards Blacks. Discusses Company participation in urban renewal projects. Gives philosophy of Black entrepreneurship in a free enterprise system.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 5, 1969
Format: Transcript, 18, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BURNS, W. Haywood (1940- ) RJB 609
Director, National Conference of Black Lawyers. Gives origin of organization and types of issues and activities with which it is concerned. Recalls his varied civil rights activities: demonstrator with Emergency Lunch Counter Integration Committee at Harvard; public relations officer of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE); participant in Mississippi Freedom Summer; National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense and Educational Fund; Counsel for Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 47, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BURRELL, Berkley (1919-deceased)    RJB 633
President, National Business League. Describes early business successes and reverses in Washington, D. C. Details difficulties in dealing with white banks. Discusses revitalization of National Business League. Defines role of Small Business Administration in Black businesses. Discusses Democratic and Republican attitudes towards Black enterprise. Evaluates influence of Booker T. Washington.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 6, 1970
Format: Transcript, 47, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BUSKIRK, Phillip (n.d.)    RJB 381
Chairman, legislative committee, Poor People's Campaign. Defines objectives and programs of his committee. Discusses Congressional legislation.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


BUTLER, Ancusto (1933- )     RJB 83
President, Job Seekers; co-founder, Freedom Fighters and United Freedom Movement, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses techniques and results of these organizations that attack discriminatory employment and working conditions in business and industry. Gives an account of riot in Cleveland. Discusses his hopes for Cleveland under Mayor Carl Stokes.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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CABBAGE, Charles (ca. 1945- )    RJB 255
Program Director, Black Organizing Project, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses Memphis garbage strike. Describes effects of assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



CABERA, Y. Arturo (1921- )    RJB 318
Faculty member, San Jose State College and candidate for California legislature. Discusses experiences as a child of poor Mexican- American parents; military experiences; factors motivating him to pursue higher education. Discusses formation of Association of Mexican-American Educators and his membership in the Mexican- American Political Association. Comments on growing militancy of Mexican-Americans.
Interviewer: Jose Lopez
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 39, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CABLETON, Robert (n.d.)    RJB 325
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Arkansas. Concentrates on internal problems of SNCC chapter in Arkansas. Assesses relevance of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to Black community.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CALHOUN, John H. (ca. 1900- )    RJB 188
Civic Leader and Republican party organizer, Atlanta, Georgia. Discusses local politics, including elections, candidates, and issues in the 1950's and 1960's.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAMPBELL, Leslie (n.d.)    RJB 497
Director, African-American Teachers' Union, New York. Co-founder, Uhuru Sasa. Discusses experiences in Oceanhill-Brownsville school district; conflicts between African-American Teachers' Union and New York State Teachers' Association; founding of Uhuru Sasa, an independent school in Brooklyn whose goal is complete community control.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: January 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAMPBELL, Mary L. (n.d.)    RJB 690
Member, Memphis Federation of Teachers, AFL/CIO. Explains reasons for joining Memphis civil rights movement. Discusses efforts to better conditions for Black teachers; her two dismissals from teaching duties; attempts to organize teachers union.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAMPBELL, Robert F. (n.d.)    RJB 97
Executive Director, Southern Educational Reporting Service (SERS). Discusses origin and purpose of SERS. Also discusses its services, including: the defunct Southern School News, Southern Education Report, SER's investigatory studies, and its library on the history of race relations 1954-65.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 30, 1967
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAMPBELL, Will D. (n.d.)    RJB 385
Director, Committee of Southern Churchmen. Former chaplain, University of Mississippi. Formerly head of the Southern office on Race and Cultural Relations, National Council of Churches. Discusses his attempts to "liberate" the University of Mississippi community in the area of race relations, his activities during the Southern desegregation crisis of the 1950's and '60's as a troubleshooter for the National Council of Churches, and his present organization. Also discusses the forming of Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and several clerical and secular civil rights groups. Recalls his friendship with some members of the Ku Klux Klan.
Interviewer:
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 188 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAPLAN, Marvin (ca. 1919- )    RJB 78
Director, Washington office, Leadership Conference on Civil rights (LCCR), and legislative representative, Industrial Union Department AFL/CIO. Discusses activism in Richmond, Virginia: founding of Southern-Jewish Outlook, an Anglo-Jewish magazine focusing on civil rights and the labor movement; organizing the Henry Wallace Progressive party; involvement with liberal causes; founding of American Veterans Committee. Details efforts to end segregation in Washington, D. C. Describes origin of LCCR. Gives strategy used to pass 1964 Civil Rights Act. Comments on impact of Black Power concept.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 147 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAREW, Colin (ca. 1941- )    RJB 8
Director, New Thing Art and Architecture Center, Washington, D. C., which exposes children and young adults to the arts and "Black culture." Discusses his ideas and design for a low-income housing project scheduled to be erected in Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, their heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


CAREY, Archibald J. (n.d.)    RJB 543
Judge, Circuit Court, Cook County, Illinois, and minister emeritus, Guinn Chapel. Discusses political background. Outlines functioning of Daley organization. Comments on association with Martin Luther King Jr.; appointments under Eisenhower administration. Traces origin of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 24, 1970
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CARLINER, David (n.d.)    RJB 237
Attorney. Chairman, Washington Home Rule Committee. Founder, D. C. chapter American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Relates his attempts to re-organize D. C. Governing body and to secure home rule for Washington. Also discusses civil rights activities of D. C. chapter of ACLU.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


CARTER, Hodding II (1935- )    RJB 329
Editor, Delta-Democrat Times, Greenville, Mississippi. One of the leaders of the Democratic "loyalist" challenge of the "regulars" at the 1968 Democratic National Convention. Discusses his own role as well as the key strategies and personalities involved in the various factions of Mississippi's divided Democratic Party during the 1968 presidential campaign which featured Alabama governor George Wallace's bid for the party's nomination. Discusses the political climate in Mississippi after the Brown v. Board of Education decision, the effect of the Freedom Summer of 1964, the influence and resurgence of the White Citizen's Councils, and the roles of the media and labor in shaping racial relations in the South.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CARTER, Robert L. (n.d.)    RJB 164
General counsel, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses his duties. Defines differences in NAACP legal department and NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Inc. Gives cost of typical case. Discusses NAACP cases, including the Supreme Court decision of 1954.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 8, 1968
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CASHIN, John (n.d.)    RJB 482/704
Veteran civil rights activist, Huntsville, Alabama. Chairman, National Democratic Party of Alabama (NDPA).
Interviewers: Robert Wright; Edward Thompson III
Dates: August 15, 1969; 1972
Format: Transcripts, 55 pages, 30 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard


CASSELL, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 357
Vice-Chairman, D. C. Emergency Committee on the Transportation Crisis. Member, Black United Front, Washington, D. C. Discusses Emergency Committee's role in halting development of freeways through inner city. Comments on police-community relations, one of the concerns of the Black United Front. Discusses the decline of CORE in Washington.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 31, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CAYTON, Horace (1912- )    RJB 429
Co-Editor, Black Metropolis. Recalls his early sociological research into urban problems, the impact of racism, and the condition of Blacks in society. Discusses his association with key foundation executives and social scientists. Offers general comments on the future of the civil rights movement, race relations, and the Black Studies movement. Gives his opinions of the Black Panthers and Black Power activists Eldridge Cleaver, Rap Brown, and Stokely Carmichael.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 20, 1969
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CHAMPION, Newton E. (n.d.)    RJB 442
UCLA student chairman, Committee for Black Art and Culture. Member, Black Athletic Association, UCLA. Discusses his ideas for Black economic power cells in the film industry and in the collegiate recruiting of Black athletes.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CHARITY, Ruth (n.d.)    RJB 620
Member, City Council, Danville, Virginia. Discusses her legislative goals with respect to federally funded job training programs, equal employment opportunities for Blacks in local government and industry, vocational education, instructional training for retarded children. Discusses the financing of her campaign. Gives a picture of Black life in Danville, e. g. relations with whites, land ownership, organizations, employment.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19,20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CHENG, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 558
Assistant to the President, Washington (D.C.) Teachers' Union. Recalls early experiences as son of interracial parents. Describes participation in Selma-to-Montgomery march. Comments on activist movement among Asian community. Discusses purposes and strategies of Teachers' Union. Describes participation in Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: June 6, 1970
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CHESTER, William (n.d.)    RJB 424
Vice President and Assistant to Harry Bridges, President of the International Longshoremen and Warehouse (ILW) Union, San Francisco, California. Discusses genesis of his civil rights commitment; history of Black participation in the maritime unions and his participation in efforts to eliminate discrimination against all minorities in the ILW. Describes current union demographics and how they influence the politics of the Union's elections and its community interests. Details use of ILW's political and economic power to improve employment and political opportunities for Blacks in the Bay area.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; cassette tape available
Tape length:
Restrictions: Standard


CHISHOLM, Shirley (1924- )    RJB 717
Representative (D-NY), U. S. Congress. Comments on initial political involvement. Discusses failures of National Black Political Convention and its leaders; Delegate Fauntroy's promise to deliver her candidacy delegate votes from the District of Columbia; support she received from common people; retiring from politics; how her involvement with Women's Liberation Movement has been misconstrued; corruption permeating American political system.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: May 2, 1973
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CHISOLM, Elwood (deceased)    RJB 17
Member of the Howard University Law School faculty. Discusses the history of the Law School as he knew it from the early 1900's. Recalls the famous Negro lawyers who helped pave the way to justice, such as Thurgood Marshall, Ralph Bunche, James Nabrit, Charles Houston and Jim Cobb. Reviews the early achievements of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Legal Defense Fund. Describes the uncompromising effort that students and faculty of the various social science fields put forth to help in the struggle for justice.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: August 9, 1967
Format: Transcript, 32 pages
Restrictions Standard


CLARK, Kenneth (1914- )    RJB 573
Director, Metropolitan Applied Research Center (MARC), New York. Recalls how his early public school education and experiences at Howard and Columbia Universities shaped his life's work. Discusses his role and that of other social scientists in the Supreme Court's school desegregation decision, 1954. Comments on HARYOU (Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited) and some of its problems.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: June 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLARK, Ramsey (1927- )    RJB 361
Attorney General during the Johnson administration. In the first of a two part interview he chronicles the march of Black progress from the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Argues the effectiveness of legal actions for achieving racial desegregation. Stresses the need to coordinate and marshal strong congressional support for laws and court decisions aimed at ameliorating segregation, discrimination, and inequity. Discusses the effects of urbanization, the generation gap, and the technological revolution on Black progress, as well as the international implications of desegregation. In the second part, he details the steps involved in drafting and strengthening the Open Housing Act of 1968 and then getting it passed in the Congress. Specifically notes the role of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights in this process. Responds to questions about the Act's shortcomings and the lack of adequate appropriations provided to enforce it.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Dates: December 17, 1968; April 21, 1969
Format: Transcripts, 24 pages; 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLARK, Robert G. (n.d.)    RJB 313
State Senator, Mississippi. Discusses his political philosophy and programs.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 15 pages, tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLARKE, John Henrik (n.d.)    RJB 495
Author and historian. Recalls the launching of his literary and teaching careers. Discusses the decline of the American Society of African Culture. Gives views on American Communist Party, the Black theater, and Black nationalism.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLARKE, William P., Sr. (n.d.)    RJB 615
Member, City Council, Chesapeake, Virginia. Discusses his campaign for election as an independent. Describes voter registration as the major problem of Blacks in the city. Describes Black representation on all city commissions and his efforts to encourage Blacks to run for political office as the most meaningful programs he could sponsor. Discusses socio-economic problems of Blacks in his city.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLAY, William L. (1931- )    RJB 374
Representative (D-MO), U. S. Congress. Reviews early civil rights activities in Missouri that led to a jail sentence. Discusses his Congressional campaign and election, the role of a Black Congressman and his efforts to desegregate labor unions.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CLEMENT, Kenneth (1920- )    RJB 191
Campaign director for Mayor Carl B. Stokes, Cleveland, Ohio. Gives personality profile of Stokes and how he was chosen as candidate. Recalls Martin Luther King Jr.'s influence on the campaign. Discusses factors that led to Stokes' defeat in 1965 and his victory in 1967.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: June 6, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions Standard


COHEN, Wilbur J. (1913-1987)    RJB 454
Former Secretary of Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Explains why John Kennedy, who stressed civil rights during his 1960 Presidential campaign, did not press for civil rights legislation until 1963. Discusses guidelines and enforcement of Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Discusses welfare reform.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 4, 1969
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COLE, Babalola (n.d.)    RJB 657
Lecturer in political science, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Comments on the student activism and militancy that evolved at Howard University during the 1967-68 school year. Compares the administrative styles of Howard president Nabrit and his successor, James Cheek.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: November 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 25, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COLEMAN, Clarence D. (n.d.)    RJB 125
Southern regional director, National Urban League. Discusses organizational and operational structure of League and how programs originating with the Delegate Assembly are channeled to local affiliates. Articulates many of the League's programs and tools employed to assess its success. Gives the League's concept of a domestic Marshall Plan. States purpose, origin, and accomplishments of Atlanta Summit Leadership Conference.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COLEMAN, Milton (1946- )    RJB 149
Student and one of the founders of Alliance of Black Students, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee Campus. Focusing on the unique concerns of Black UWM students, Coleman debates the relevance of Eurocentric academics to Black progress and discusses the concept of Black Power. Comments on the civil unrest within Milwaukee's Black community, incidents of police brutality, and the political ineptness of the city government.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: February 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COLES, Flounroy (n.d.)    RJB 393
Chairman, Interstate-40 Steering Committee, Nashville, Tennessee, formed to block construction of a highway through the Black section of the city containing 85 per cent of the Negro businesses in the county. Discusses highway controversy at length, including why the construction was re-routed through the Black district, legal maneuvers of participants in the controversy, and the effects of the construction on the Black community.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COLLINS, Daniel A. (1916- )    RJB 423
Dentist and civic leader, San Francisco, California. Founder of the San Francisco Urban League and former member of the California State Board of Education. Recalls his youth in rural South Carolina and his early organizing activities for the Democratic Party in northern California in the 1940s and 50s. Discusses the roles of the unions and multiracial coalitions in Black Californians' efforts to achieve economic self-determination and political empowerment. Derides the intellectual shortcomings of Black militants and their tactics.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COMACHO, Victor (n.d.)    RJB 320
President, San Marcos (California) Foundation, an organization "dedicated to the cultural, educational, and economic development of the Hispanic community." Discusses funding of his group. Stresses inadequate housing as one of the most pressing problems of Mexican-Americans in his area. Discusses signs of revolt in the Chicano community.
Interviewer: Sy Berg
Date: August 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COMFORT, Mark (n.d.)    RJB 338
Director, Oakland (California) Direct Action Committee. Discusses origin and purpose of his group. Recalls founding of Black Panther Party in California. Discusses his experiences as western coordinator of Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COOK, Harold D. J. (1946- )    RJB 356
Law student, Howard University. Discusses student protest at Howard attributing it to the failure of administration to respond to student demands and the inability of students to get results through orderly channels. Compares protest at Howard with that of Columbia University. Discusses Law School programs that reach into the Black community.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: November 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COOKS, Stoney (1943- )    RJB 260
Staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Chairman of the college and youth involvement program of the Poor People's Campaign. Recalls origin of idea for Poor People's Campaign. Discusses role played by students, including fund raising campaigns, clothing drives, teaching at Poor People's University. Discusses the University, which was his idea, and his expectations. Relates his duties as budget officer for the Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COOPER, Ernest (n.d.)    RJB 602
Director, Urban League, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses the new thrust of the League with respect to its interest in lower-income Blacks and its concern with changing institutional systems so that they will work for Black people. Looks at business and employment opportunities for Blacks in Cleveland.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: July 1, 1970
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COTTON, Douglas M. (1942- )    RJB 284
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Mississippi. Comments on the impact of the Freedom Summer and outside organizers on the civil rights efforts of native Black Mississippians.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COUNTRYMAN, Peter (1942- )    RJB 116
Founder, Northern Student Movement, a fund raising organization for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COURTS, Gus (n.d.)    RJB 160
Former leader, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Belzoni, Mississippi. Recalls the "harassment, intimidation, and acts of violence" he experienced because of his NAACP membership and voter registration activities.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COWAN, Pauline (1913- )    RJB 163
Director, Wednesdays in Mississippi, an interracial group of women who observed conditions and civil rights activities in Mississippi, and reported their findings in an effort to solicit action and support for civil rights.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 8, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41,42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


COX, Raymond L., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 216
Elected senator from College of Liberal Arts to the Student Assembly, Howard University, 1967-68. Articulates conditions at the university that led to campus unrest in 1968. Relates his ideas on the responsibilities of a Black university to its academic and surrounding community.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CRAFT, Juanita E. (n.d.)    RJB 214  
Director, Youth Division, Dallas chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses her division's projects for economically deprived youth.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: June 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


CRAIG, Calvin (1928- )    RJB 124
Grand Dragon, Georgia realm, United Klans of America, Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. Vice Chairman, Model City Program, Atlanta, Georgia. Gives his views on race, stressing his beliefs in segregation, the right of individuals to live in harmony and have a good life among their class of people. Discusses some of the Klan's programs, e. g. voter registration and clothing banks. Gives the purpose and function of the Klan.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CRANFORD, Raymond (n.d.)    RJB 387
Southern farmer and businessman. Member, Ku Klux Klan. Gives his views on poor whites, integration, Blacks and American society today.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 28,29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CRENSHAW, Cornelia (n.d.)    RJB 243
Veteran civil rights leader, Memphis, Tennessee. A leading organizer of the garbage strike and boycott. Recounts the volatile conditions and events which led to the Memphis garbage workers' strike and Martin Luther King, Jr.'s fateful visit in April 1968-- the mounting pressure from dedicated Black labor and civil rights activists for fair employment, housing, and education opportunity and the stubborn resistance of segregationist white politicians and merchants.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CROCKETT, George W. (1909- )    RJB 695
Judge, Recorders Court, Detroit, Michigan. Vice President, National Lawyers Guild. Veteran civil rights attorney. Reflects on his lengthy legal career, from his early years as a Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) trial examiner during the (Franklin) Roosevelt administration, to his controversial tenure as a criminal court judge in Detroit, battling to protect the civil rights of prisoners, expose police brutality, and eliminate discriminatory sentencing practices. Discusses his role as legal counsel to the International United Auto Workers Union in the 1940s, and chastises union policy makers for their ambivalence regarding civil rights and desegregation issues. Recalls his private practice exploits as a partner in one of the nation's first interracial law firms: from defending citizens accused of communist activity by the McCarthy committee, to establishing legal institutes to help southern Black lawyers supplement their civil rights practices, to working with the National Lawyers Guild defending COFO (Conference of Federated Organizations) activists in Mississippi in the 1960s.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 9, 1970
Format: Transcript, 73, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CRONIN, John F. (n.d.)    RJB 26
Catholic priest who urged the American bishops to issue their statement of 1958 on race relations and civil rights. Discusses role of clergy in civil rights legislation.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 18, 1967
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.


CURRENT, Gloster (1913- )    RJB 167
Director, Branches and Field Administration, National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP). Examines employment and economic conditions for Negroes in Detroit in the 1940's. Discusses riots there, 1942-43. Describes NAACP organization including its policies, membership, relationship of branches to national leadership. Discusses duties of his office.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


CURRIER, Theodore (n.d.)    RJB 96
Professor, Department of History, Fisk University. Discusses relationship of Fisk to the Nashville community. Examines the role and need of black colleges and universities. Looks at the socio- economic conditions of Negroes in Nashville, Tennessee.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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DABBS, James McBride (n.d.)    RJB 258
Author, teacher and farmer. President, Southern Regional Council (SRC) (1957-1963). Describes local (South Carolina) reactions to writings. Comments on civil rights leaders. Discusses reactions of Southern whites to 1954 Supreme Court decision. Analyzes Southern mind, Black and white.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: July 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71, 74 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



DANDRIDGE, Gloria Richardson (1922- )    RJB 55
Leader of civil rights protest demonstrations in Cambridge, Maryland in early 1960's. Describes the nature of demonstrations and their results.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DANIEL, Allan Mercer (n.d.)    RJB 266
Law Librarian Emeritus, Howard University. Beginning with his observations on the rise of discrimination in Washington, D. C. 1903, Professor Daniel recalls his associations and impressions of noted national Negro leaders of the period. He discusses the numerous civil rights activities in which he was engaged.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIDSON, Eugene (1897-1976)    RJB 236
Former Board Member, District of Columbia chapter NAACP, 1927-1957. Former Administrator, New Negro Alliance. Recalls his experiences as a soldier in the segregated U. S. Army during World War I. Discusses the New Negro Alliance and its efforts to secure employment for Negroes 1933-1941.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIDSON, Julia (n.d.)    RJB 586
Director, Intensive Education Development (IED), University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Describes her program, which grew out of the Baltimore Upward Bound program and was aimed at recruiting poor (mostly Black) students into college, providing financial aid and other types of academic and moral support, and generally helping them adjust to the campus environment.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIES, Lawrence (n.d.)    RJB 618
First Black city councilman, Fredericksburg, Virginia. Describes his campaign which was structured and financed by a bi-racial organization, Citizens United for Action. Discusses other community activities of this group in the areas of housing and education. Describes life in his city of approximately 15,000 inhabitants.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Fred (ca. 1937- )    RJB 253
Member, City Council, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses involvement in city politics. Gives history of Memphis sanitation workers' strike. Describes influence of Martin Luther King Jr. on strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Robert (ca. 1927- )    RJB 619
Member, City Council, Clifton Forge, Virginia. Discusses his own political campaign as well as the challenges facing Black elected officials at the grassroots level in general, especially in terms of voter education and registration efforts among Blacks in the rural South.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, Velma (n.d.)    RJB 566
Member, Black Student Union secretarial staff, University of Maryland. Comments on campus strike, Spring 1970, including sincerity of demonstrators, why Blacks did not participate, and expected gains.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 1, 1970
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAVIS, William R. (1929- )    RJB 117
First Black man to run for Pennsylvania State Legislature from Philadelphia (1966). Discusses his campaign. Describes his association with the National Organization for Black Power (1962) and the group's activities prior to national recognition of the Black Power concept. Discusses socio-economic conditions in Philadelphia's ghettoes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAY, Margaret "Peggy" Dammond (1942- )    RJB 98
Early SNCC worker in Georgia and Cambridge, Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 156 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DAY, Noel (1933- )    RJB 61
Consultant on Community Organization. Organization for Social and Technical Innovation, Boston, Massachusetts. Recalls initial involvement in civil rights as program director for United Community Center, Brooklyn, New York. Discusses activities in Boston.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 27, 1967
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DEARMAN, John E. (ca.1930- )    RJB 441
Attorney. Discusses several civil rights activities and law cases that he has been associated with in San Francisco, California.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DeBERRY, Clifton (n.d.)    RJB 626
Member, Socialist Workers Party (SWP). SWP candidate for governor of New York (1970), SWP candidate for President of the United States (1964). Describes his efforts as a member of SWP to raise funds to support the Montgomery boycott. Comments on Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, and theorizes about their assassinations. Discusses the Party's philosophy and its efforts to gain Black party members.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages, incomplete; cassette tape made of entire interview.
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: Standard

DELANEY, Kelly (n.d.), joint with    RJB 691
WATSON, Lance
Black activists and members of The Invaders, a young militant group, Memphis, Tennessee. Delaney describes the Invaders as a kind of on-demand community organizing and mobilization service. Recalls a protest march he conducted in 1969 at the invitation of Blacks in Forrest City, Arkansas: a "Walk Without Fear" from Memphis to Little Rock to protest racial inequities in that city. Both Delaney and Watson discuss why they formed an interracial activist coalition called "We the People" and talk about some of the group's goals and projected political activities, notably a "people's trial" of President Nixon.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DENT, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 480
Director, Free Southern Theater, New Orleans, Louisiana. Traces development of the Theater from its origin in the Mississippi civil rights movement in 1964 to its present base in New Orleans. Discusses theater's changing goals and future plans. Relates roles of Black theater to Black community. Discusses some of the organization's problems including lack of support from New Orleans community and expense of maintaining a touring company. As an originator of UMBRA, talks briefly about the magazine.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 25, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DESPRES, Leon (1908- )    RJB 159
City Alderman, Chicago. Examines the political machine in Chicago, its methods and raison d'être. Discusses advances and defeats in race relations he has witnessed during his 13 years in city government. Discusses some of his civil rights ordinances and the resistance accorded them by Black and white councilmen.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 21, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

De VEAUX, Jacqueline (n.d.)    RJB 171
Student protest leader, Tuskegee Institute. Principal in De Veaux v. Tuskegee, which sought to have expelled student protesters readmitted to Tuskegee. Describes events leading to her involvement in campus dissent. Describes the program of student protest, including a 21-page mandate of issues. Discusses student- administration deliberations and expulsion of student body.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

DEVINE, Annie (1917- )    RJB 334
Member, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). One of three Black candidates to challenge election and seating of regular Mississippi Congressional delegation in 1965.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DeWOLF, Harold L. (1905-1986)    RJB 169
Dean, Wesley Theological Seminary, Washington, D. C. Principal advisor to Martin Luther King Jr. while the latter was studying for the Ph.D. in systematic theology at Boston University. Discusses King as he knew him.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

DIAMOND, Dion T. (1941- )    RJB 77
Director, Neighborhood Services Project, Washington, D. C. Former field representative, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls early years in Petersburg, Virginia, and influence of the Reverend Wyatt T. Walker. Discusses early freedom rides through Mississippi, Alabama and other Southern states; and experiences as SNCC field representative. Describes life at Parchman, the Mississippi state penitentiary, where he was jailed for 49 days. Gives impression of James Farmer, his cellmate in Parchman. Discusses the August, 1969, seminar for civil rights leaders in Nashville, Tennessee, sponsored by the United States National Student Association (USNSA).
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


DICKERSON, Earl B. (ca. 1900- )    RJB 548
Attorney. Recalls early childhood experiences that stimulated his interest in civil rights. Discusses landmarks in his career including his work with NAACP in Chicago against restrictive covenants; chief counsel for plaintiff in Hansberry v. Lee; integrating Chicago and Illinois Bar Associations; preparing draft for petition, "We Charge Genocide," to be place before United Nations by DuBois.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DIGGS, Charles C., Jr. (1922- )    RJB 492
Representative (D.-Mich.), U. S. Congress. Discusses his visit to South Africa, including the plight of Black Africans and the relationship of the U. S. civil rights movement to their situation. Describes causes of the 1967 Detroit riot. Discusses the Black Panther Party. Looks at home rule for Washington, D. C. Gives information on the Inner City Business Improvement Forum, a Detroit group that provides service for Black entrepreneurship.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DITTO, Frank (1930- )    RJB 608
Director, East Side Voice of Independent Detroit. Recalls his personal reasons for becoming involved in grassroots organizing. Describes his organization's youth programs, especially a political education project that initiated a far-reaching "junior city government" model for students from Detroit ghettos.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DOCKERY, Richard L. (1924- )    RJB 180
Director, Southwest region, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses main problems unique to his area including relationship of NAACP to Mexican- American; investigation of atrocities against Black prison inmates in Arkansas; city governments in which officials serve gratis thus affording only the wealthy public office. Gives example of a typical work day.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DOWDY, George A. (n.d.)    RJB 692
Teacher, President, Memphis (Tenn.) Federation of Teachers, AFL/CIO. Gives a history of efforts to unionize teachers in Memphis during the 1960s. Describes the rationale behind and the impact of the "Black Mondays" tactic, in which Black parents and their children boycotted public schools on Mondays in protest of discriminatory school board practices. Discusses in detail a case in which a Black student and a white teacher were expelled for supporting this activity, and describes the union's role in reversing the board's decision.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DRAKE, St. Clair (1911-1990)    RJB 462
Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Stanford University (California). Reminisces about 1920s Black student activism at Howard, Fisk, and Hampton universities, highlighting his involvement in strikes and protests at the latter against the condescending attitudes of white missionary benefactors toward Blacks. Identifies his early intellectual influences, especially that of noted Black social anthropologist Allison Davis. Recalls his exposure to and involvement with Quaker Friends, communist, and socialist organizations and causes in the 1930s. Traces his educational and professional pursuits: his teaching positions at historically Black and white colleges; graduate study at the University of Chicago; a stint in the integrated Merchant Marines; his sociological studies of Black life and race relations with Davis and Horace Cayton; and his experiences teaching, doing research, and studying in Europe and Africa. Also discusses his personal life and philosophies, his interracial marriage, and his involvement in urban renewal and housing integration efforts in the communities surrounding the University of Chicago. Recalls his involvement in the Young Turks movement within the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and later with the National Negro Congress. Details his role as an advisor to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), commenting on: Black/white dissensions within SNCC and the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) over funding and the concept of Black Power, the demoralization and disillusionment of many SNCC leaders by the late 60s, SNCC's decision to abandon the South in 1966 and focus on urban ghettos, and SNCC's association with the Black Panthers. Analyzes the new directions of SNCC's Stokely Carmichael and Jim Forman. Discusses the ideological split between cultural nationalists such as Ron Karenga's organization and the Black Panthers. Discusses communist activism in the Chicago's Black communities and the influence and activities of that city's Black street gangs and Black Panther Party. Comments on: the impact of Martin Luther King's death on Blacks in the urban North, emerging Black leadership, Black Power (mentioning the outcome of the 1967 Black Power conference in Newark), Black separatism and militancy, the Third World concept, and the Black Studies movement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 210 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DREW. Steve (n.d.)    RJB 564
Student, University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Describes a violent student antiwar protest that occurred at the University of Maryland in response to President Nixon's decision to invade Cambodia. Gives his impressions of the campus climate and the level of student commitment to the antiwar effort.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUM, Lawrence C. (1942- )    RJB 440
Journalist, San Francisco Examiner. Recalls his experiences as a white student at Central High School, Little Rock, Arkansas, during the desegregation crisis in 1957. Remembers attitudes and activities of fellow students, faculty members, and citizens at that time.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNBAR, Leslie (n.d.)   RJB 309
Executive Director, Field Foundation, New York. Former Executive Director, Southern Regional Council, Atlanta, Georgia. Chronicles the history of the Southern Regional Council and the roots of southern liberalism. Discusses his research and executive roles within the SRC, especially its Voter Education Project, from 1959 to 1965. Critiques national civil rights legislation from Eisenhower's 1957 bill to more comprehensive Civil Rights Act of 1964. Assesses the Kennedy administration's approach to civil rights and to the South in general. Offers comments on the transformation of the South as a result of the civil rights movement, the future of race relations, rising Black militancy, SRC's antiwar position, the student movement, and the effect of desegregation on young southern whites. Claims the civil rights movement is dead, and that the focus should turn to Black political and economic empowerment and eradicating poverty.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNCAN, Charles T. (1925- )    RJB 337
Corporation Counsel, Washington, D. C. As legal representative of the D. C. government, he discusses his office's relationship to Congress, enforcement of the closing of Resurrection City, role during the D. C. riots in 1968. Describes his role in Brown v. Board of Education, the school desegregation decision.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNCAN, John B. (n.d.)    RJB 518
Former Commissioner, Washington, D. C. First Black so appointed. Provides insights on the extent of racial segregation and inequality in the nation's capital from the 1930s to the 1960s. Describes the progressively intensifying involvement and approaches of various civic and civil rights groups in Washington, DC, in the struggle for Home Rule and political and fiscal independence. Describes his role as Commissioner of the District and his efforts to create an atmosphere for political change by increasing the employment of Blacks and women in city government. Discusses networking among Black professionals and civil servants with white federal and local officials.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DUNLAP, Nellie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 597
ASHFORD, Joyce

City organizer and Chairwoman respectively, Detroit (Michigan) Metropolitan Welfare rights Association. Program, services, memberships, and funding of organization are discussed. Also discussion of increased benefits and education incentives for Detroit welfare recipients.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 6, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURHAM, W. J. (Deceased, 12/22/70)    RJB 183
Civil rights attorney since 1930's. Discusses many of his cases, including Sweatt v. Painter, which allowed the admission of Negroes to the University of Texas Law School.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURR, Clifford Judkins (1899-1975)    RJB 398
White attorney active in Montgomery bus boycott. Describes immediate conditions that led to the boycott. Discusses trial of Mrs. Rosa Parks. Looks at effect of boycott on the community, bringing to light some humorous incidents. Discusses other civil rights cases in which he has been involved.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 74, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DURR, Virginia (1903- )    RJB 397
Recalls her association with the late Mary McLeod Bethune and Mary Church Terrell. Discusses relationship and attitudes of Southern white aristocracy towards Blacks. Discusses the Montgomery, Alabama bus boycott, and how Mrs. Rosa Parks became the symbol of resistance although others had disobeyed the segregated seating laws.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 69, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

DYMALLY, Mervyn M. (1926- )    RJB 443
Senator, California State Legislator. Recalls his initiation into politics as campaign worker in the Black community for John F. Kennedy. Reviews his first campaign and election in California. Discusses his role in establishing a national conference of Black elected officials. Discusses educational aid to minority students' program of the Urban Affairs Institute.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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EALY, Jonathan (n.d.)    RJB 596
Director, United Pastors Association, Cleveland, Ohio. Gives origin, funding and purpose of organization--the training of ministers and lay people for active work in Black community. Discusses the lack of support from Black ministers, impact of the group on the community and Black theology.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



EDWARDS, G. Franklin (n.d.)    RJB 217
Professor of Sociology, Howard University. Discusses student unrest at Howard, including some of the student demands. Recalls circumstances surrounding dismissal of Nathan Hare. As a Sociologist, analyzes student unrest and Black awareness.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 27, 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ELDRIDGE, Tommy (1918- )    RJB 245
Sanitation worker and one of the organizers of the Municipal Employees Union during the garbage strike in Memphis, Tennessee. Voices strong support for union tactics and civil rights organization involvement as means of solidifying Black unity in Memphis and obtaining Black workers' demands for better pay and working conditions. Recalls Martin Luther King's last speech.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1968 Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ELIE, Lolie E. (n.d.)    RJB 680
Civil rights attorney, New Orleans, Louisiana. Recalls several life-threatening confrontations between civil rights activists and Louisiana law enforcement officials (many of whom he identifies as members of the KKK and other white supremacist groups). Discusses the workings of a civil rights law practice.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ERLICK, Rick (n.d.)    RJB 580
President, Community Government, Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. Discusses the involvement of Antioch's student government in 1960s political activism, specifically its role in a massive campus protest in response to the escalation of the Viet Nam War.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


ERVIN, Sam (1896-1985)    RJB 676
Senator (D.-N.C.), U. S. Congress. Discusses sub-committee investigation of Army's civilian surveillance, how he became involved and results of the study. Gives reasons for opposing busing, Federal civil rights acts and legislation. Comments on defeat of President Nixon's nominees to the Supreme Court, Clement Haynsworth and Harold Carswell. Discusses "no-knock" provision of D. C. crime bill.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 29, 1971
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ESTRADA, Phillip (1935- )    RJB 143
Editor, Milwaukee Star News, a Black newspaper in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Chronicles his entry into and rise in the field of journalism. Explains Milwaukee's demographics and identifies some of the issues that concern the Black community. Defines his newspaper's mission and editorial policy, and comments on relations with community. Discusses perceived racism on the Milwaukee police force, complaints about police brutality and the lack of citizen recourse to a complaint review process. Comments on Mayor Henry Maier's leadership prior to and during the riot.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 12, 1968
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes (Difficult to listen to because of very loud background noise.)
Restrictions: No reproduction

EVANS, Ronald (n.d.)    RJB 383
Principal, P. S. 201, Harlem, New York. Expounds on the successful but tumultuous campaign waged by Black and Puerto Rican parents in Harlem to wrest decision-making authority over their local schools, particularly P.S. 201, from the white-dominated school board and teachers unions of New York City. Delineates the reasons for the antagonism between the parents and the predominantly white teachers/administrators at P.S. 201. Describes the sequence of events, community conditions, and controversies leading to his selection as principal of the school. Presents his plans for restructuring the school and repositioning it in the life of the community.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

EVERS, Myrlie (n.d.)    RJB 419
Widow of slain civil rights leader, Medgar Evers. Speaks of her late husband, including his devotion to the cause of civil rights; his faith in Mississippi and his assassination. Discusses political changes in Mississippi in the election of Black city and state officials. Looks at social changes in the area of school integration and police-community relations.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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FAGAN, Maurice B. (1909- )    RJB 119
Executive Director, Fellowship Commission, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Discusses origin, structure, funding, and activities of the Commission, as well as race relations in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 9-10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



FANION, Gerald (1932- )    RJB 250
Deputy Director, Tennessee Council on Human Relations, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses his involvement in the Memphis garbage workers' strike as chairman of publicity for the Community on the Move for Equality (COME). Describes a peaceful mass meeting and protest march in which activists from a broad spectrum of civil rights, community, and church groups were maced and beaten by police. Commends Martin Luther King, Jr., for responding to the striking workers' call for help when national National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) leadership refused to get involved. Describes some suspicious events surrounding King's assassination, including a Black policeman's covert role in tracking King's movements.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FARMER, James (1920- )    RJB 317
Formerly National Director of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Recalls his service with Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR). Discusses origin of CORE, its leaders, programs, and relationship to FOR. Discusses the concept of nonviolence, its usage in the 1940's and 1960's. Gives account of student sit-in in Greensboro, North Caroling. Discusses CORE freedom rides in 1960's, the ensuing jail terms and attempts to raise bail money. Looks at philosophy and goals of CORE today.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FAUNTROY, Walter (1933- )    RJB 710
Non-voting Delegate (D.-D.C.), U. S. House of Representatives. Discusses three major influential factors in his life: growing up in segregated Washington, D. C.; theological training; Martin Luther King Jr. Attributes present involvement in politics as an outgrowth of civil rights activities, especially his role as Director, Washington Bureau, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses National Black Political Convention (1972) and alignment of Blacks with major political parties. Looks at Black Caucus, Congressional reaction, and dissension among Caucus members. Comments on home rule for District of Columbia and the Nixon Administration.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 23, 1973
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FEELINGS, Tom (n.d.) RJB 496
New York free-lance artist who concentrates on drawing and painting Black life in Africa and the United States. Recalls the beginning of his artistic career. Discusses responsibility of Black artist to his community and role in civil rights organizations. Comments on the activities of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) in New York in the 1960's.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FERGUSON, Herman (1920- )    RJB 575
Minister of Education, Republic of New Africa. Co-defendant in alleged RAM conspiracy to assassinate Roy Wilkins (National Executive Director, NAACP) and Whitney Young (National Executive Director, National Urban League). Describes his personal transition from patriotic Negro American during World War II to Black nationalist militant by the 1960s. Talks at length about his personal association with and reverence for Malcolm X, with whom he helped establish the Organization for Afro-American Unity (OAAU), serving as Chairman of the OAAU's educational committee. Describes his role in the OAAU, particularly that of creating a "liberation school." Assesses the general impact of Malcolm X's death as well as its effect on the OAAU. Recounts his return to direct community action, establishing a gun club in a Black Detroit community. Describes the evolution, out of this club, of the provisional government of the Republic of New Afrika (RNA) in 1968. Details the organization's structure, key officials and cabinet members, and its Declaration of Independence. Describes efforts to politicize the community around the arrests and eventual convictions of RNA members on charges of anarchy, conspiracy to commit arson, conspiracy to assassinate civil rights and political leaders, and unlawful possession of firearms. Expounds at length on the Black nationalist/separatist philosophy and the purposes of Black education.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FIELDS, John (1922- )    RJB 111
Director, Community Relations Service, U. S. Conference of Mayors. National coordinator of the National Urban Coalition. Describes the origins, functions, and operations of the Urban Coalition and the Conference of Mayors. Recalls his association with Detroit's Interracial Committee, and its efforts to bring about equal opportunities in housing, education, and employment. Former Executive Director of President Kennedy's Committee on Equal Employment Opportunities. Recalls the President's civil rights activities and attitudes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 100 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FITZHUGH, Howard N. (aka H. Naylor) (1909- )    RJB 382
Vice President, Pepsi-Cola Co. Former member, New Negro Alliance. Details the history and activities of the New Negro Alliance of the 1930s, an organization of Black professionals committed to eradicating discriminatory practices by Washington, DC businesses via peaceful civil protests and litigation. Describes his own efforts in support of the cause of Black business people, and advocates the importance of Blacks entering the American business mainstream as well as developing their own enterprises. Briefly mentions the Small Business Administration, particularly its shortcomings, in this regard.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 91 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FLETCHER, Arthur (1924- )   RJB 675
Assistant Secretary, U. S. Department of Labor. Recalls his civil rights activities. Gives local history of Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas), which culminated in 1954 Supreme Court school desegregation decision. Discusses Nixon Administration's commitment to equal employment. Traces process of enforcing contract compliance in employment. Discusses Philadelphia Plan.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: 1970, 1971
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FORMAN, Sidney (n.d.) RJB 703
Librarian, Teachers College, Columbia University. Member Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Discusses the Project, including how he became a member of its growing Board; original concept and plans and its eventual focus on oral history; value and use of Project material and oral history; dissemination of collected information.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: September 27, 1972
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FORTUNE, Hilda (n.d.)    RJB 37
College professor. Close associate of Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune. Staff member, National Urban League. Chronicles her educational and professional career. Discusses many of her Urban League activities in Baltimore. Recalls the League's fight against employment agencies in New York that exploited domestic workers.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: January 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 111 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANCOIS, Terry (1921- )    RJB 341
Member, City and Town Board of Supervisors, San Francisco, California. Former chairman, California chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Former civil rights lawyer. Recalls his military service years, particularly his experiences as an agitator against discrimination in the armed forces. Describes early stages of his legal career representing Blacks who had been refused service in public accommodations in San Francisco. Details his accomplishments and challenges as a member of the San Francisco Fair Employment Practices Commission, the California Democratic Party, and as president of the San Francisco NAACP from 1959 to 1962. Describes the activities of the San Francisco Freedom Movement, a coalition of civil rights, church, and community groups active in the Bay Area. Details his involvement with civil rights groups in the South, and in San Francisco with Dick Gregory aiding Black student activists who staged sit-ins and picket lines against discriminating businesses.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANKLIN, Harold (n.d.)    RJB 104
First Negro to enroll in Auburn University, Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRANKLIN, John Hope (1915- )    RJB 702
Historian and author. Member, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Recalls aspects of his professional life, including why he became an historian; development of interest in Black history; writing of From Slavery to Freedom; experiences as a teacher at Howard University, Brooklyn College, University of Chicago. Assesses value of Black studies programs in colleges and universities.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: August 9, 1972
Format: Cassette Tape
Tape length: 3 hours
Restrictions: No reproduction

FREEMAN, Orville (1918- )    RJB 369
Secretary of Agriculture during the Johnson Administration. Discusses some of the problems of small Black farmers in the South and special programs administered through his Department to aid them. Discusses equal employment opportunities in his division of government. Recalls demands made by members of Poor People's Campaign of the Agriculture Department.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

FRIELDMAN, Peter (n.d.)    RJB 577
Member of the Yale University Strike Committee. Discusses the need for "revolution" in the United States, his reformist activities, effect of student strike at Yale on other universities.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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GALAMISON, Milton (1923-1988))    RJB 538
A leader of the 1964 public school strike in New York City in which an estimated half million people boycotted classes February 3rd. Sketches a history of school desegregation efforts in New York during the 1950's and 1960's. Describes the collective aid and support given the boycott by major civil rights organizations.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



GANS, Curtis (1937- ) RJB 41
Former activist with the National Student Association Congress in the 1960's. Discusses civil rights activities of this organization and student protest in Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 10, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GANT, Danny (1933- )    RJB 75
Director, Target City Baltimore Chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Defines the concept "target city." Gives the approach used for the program, problems encountered, and progress to date. Also discusses his CORE field work in other areas of the country.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 13, 1967
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GARMAN, Betty (1939- )    RJB 152
Associated with The New Thing Art and Architecture Center, Washington, D. C. Former fund raiser and staff member, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Recalls her introduction to student politics as a sophomore at Skidmore College in 1958 through the National Student Association (NSA); describes at length the jobs and events that transformed her from a naive white middle- class suburbanite majoring in psychology to the activist volunteer who joined SNCC in the Spring of 1964. Discusses the fund raising and information gathering activities she was responsible for in Greenwood, Mississippi during the Freedom Summer Project; provides examples of police and citizen harassment; comments on the tensions which developed between northern white students and local Black citizens; theorizes about the motivations of the white volunteers. Recounts her participation in the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party's (MFDC) challenge to be seated at the 1964 Democratic National Convention in Atlantic City; contests the "official" version of events stated by Joe Rauh and other civil rights leaders regarding who negotiated the compromise that was offered to the MFDC by the Credentials Committee and the squelching of a minority report which challenged the compromise. Discusses her fund raising job in the Atlanta office; describes its national scope, the role of the Friends of SNCC and the kinds of activities around which SNCC raised funds; attempts to clarify SNCC's financial arrangement with the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC). Recalls the SNCC Executive Committee meeting in which plans for participation in the Selma March were discussed; identifies the issues that SNCC raised in opposition to the March, as well as the positions of various SNCC personnel including Silas Norman, Alabama Project Director, and John Lewis, then Chairman of SNCC. Analyzes the significance of the televising of the March and the brutality of the Alabama Troopers, the reaction of SNCC staff and the event's subsequent impact on fund raising efforts, as well as other long- term outcomes. Comments briefly on the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the failure of the Justice Department to implement the Act initially. Recalls history of SNCC's organizational restructuring and suggests some reasons why Stokely Carmichael succeeded John Lewis as Chairman of SNCC. Digresses to describe Carmichael's work with the Lowndes County, Alabama, Freedom Movement and the Panther Party, helping Black farmers organize around the election of representatives to the Agricultural Stabilization Committees (ASC), an arm of the Department of Agriculture. Details significance of the ASCs, the importance of the elections, and the reasons why SNCC became involved in helping to develop rural cooperatives for Black farmers. Discusses SNCC's decision making process in determining which communities to work in and organize. Comments throughout on SNCC's relationship with SCLC and Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 4, 1967
Format: Transcript, 22 pages (incomplete); cassette tape of entire interview
Tape length: 135 minutes
Restrictions: Standard for transcript; no reproduction of tape.

GASPERETTI, Elio (n.d.) RJB 643
Curriculum specialist in the public schools, Washington, D. C. Discusses his efforts to develop and introduce Black studies curricular materials into the District of Columbia public schools, particularly the resistance to and lack of interest in these materials from both the school board and teachers.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIBBS, Alma (n.d.)    RJB 616
Member, Town Council, Dedron, Virginia, a rural predominately Black area of about 300 inhabitants. Discusses some of her legislative goals including refurbishing the downtown district, adequate street lighting, a town-wide water system. Discusses sources of income in her area and the segregated school system.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIBSON, John L. (1936- )    RJB 176
Student protester in Georgia during the early 1960's. Discusses the protest movement in Atlanta, "An Appeal for Human Rights," and his relationship with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: April 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GILMORE, Keith (n.d.)    RJB 645
Director, Watts Extended Health and Family Planning Service, Los Angeles, California. Discusses the need for his organization, its philosophy of family planning, funding and services.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GILMORE, Thomas (1941- )    RJB 275
Staff worker, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Greene County, Alabama. Discusses voter registration project in his area and the tactics used by whites to impede the program. Recalls the defeat of his all-Black slate for local offices attributed to the 120 per cent vote of the white populace.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GIVENS, Cornelius (1931- )    RJB 223
Representative of the Grass-Rooters Interested in Poverty Elimination (GRIPE). Recalls technical assistance his organization gave the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in the Poor People's Campaign. Describes organizational problems encountered by various regional groups in Resurrection City. Discusses his plans for a national multi-ethnic coalition of poor people.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GLICKSTEIN, Howard (1929- )    RJB 490
Staff Director-designate, U. S. Civil rights Commission. Attorney. Discusses civil rights division of U. S. Department of Justice under the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations. Recalls voting rights cases handled by the division and the origin and development of the Voting rights Act of 1965. suggests additional areas for civil rights legislation. Examines various goals of the Civil Rights Commission.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GOFF, Regina (n.d.)    RJB 452
Administrator, Programs for the Disadvantaged, U. S. Office of Education. Discusses handling of complaints. Discusses most successful programs. Describes local community agency cooperation with Federal government. Comments on ways to bring disadvantaged into the mainstream.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: July 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GOMILLION, Charles G. (1900- )    RJB 21 Plaintiff in Gomillion v. Lightfoot, the Tuskegee gerrymandering case which eliminated all but 10 Black voters from the city limits. He discusses this case, as well as activities of the Tuskegee Civic Association in school desegregation and voter registration.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GOODLETT, Carleton B. (1914- )    RJB 348
Editor-Publisher, Sun-Reporter, weekly Black newspaper in San Francisco. California gubernatorial candidate, 1966. Discusses paper's editorial policy of fair and equal employment for all minorities of the community, in government, business and commerce. As an active member of world peace movement, discusses, the newspaper's position on Vietnam.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRAHAM, Frank P. (1886-1972)    RJB 373
Former president, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: January 30, 1969
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRANGER, Lester B. (1896-1976) RJB 190
Executive Director, National Urban League, 1941-61. Discusses origin and purpose of League. Recalls conditions at League when he became chief including primary focus, activities, structure, and funding. Discusses growth and development under his leadership. Articulates social services offered by League. Recalls how his investigation of segregation and discrimination in the Navy led to a change in its official policy. Discusses the usage of executive and legislative powers by Presidents Roosevelt, Eisenhower, and Kennedy, to affect the Negro either positively or negatively.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 84 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard.

GRAY, Fred (n.d.)    RJB 101
Civil rights attorney. Reviews many of the significant civil rights cases with which he was involved. Discusses his campaign for the Alabama state legislature.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: December 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRAY, Jesse (1923- )    RJB 10
Leader of rent strike in New York. Discusses housing condition for Blacks in Harlem and two legislative tools--Rooming House Bill, Rent Strike Law--applied to relieve these conditions.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREAVES, William (n.d.)    RJB 509
Executive producer and co-host, "Black Journal." Provides insights on how the public television program "Black Journal" was conceived, and discusses the Black community's responses to it. Describes the "coup" which brought him to the show, a protest staged by "Black Journal" staff against the show's having a white executive producer; and many other battles waged with network, business, and foundation executives to increase the amount of funding and air time devoted to that show and other Black-oriented programming in general.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1969
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREELEY, Dana (n.d.)    RJB 95
President, Unitarian-Universalist Association of North America. Explores changing approach of Unitarian Church towards race relations. Discusses advent and effect of Black caucus movement within Unitarian Church.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREEN, Edith (1910-1987) RJB 375
Representative (D.-Oregon), U. S. Congress. Chairman of the Education and Labor Subcommittee on Higher Education in the House of Representatives. Discusses "Green Amendment" to War on Poverty legislation, which made area elected officials more responsible for the administration of poverty funds. Comments on college unrest, aid to higher education and curriculum development. Recalls her supportive role of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) in the challenge of the "regular" Democrats at the 1964 national convention.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREEN, Ernest (1940- )    RJB 13
One of the original "Little Rock (Arkansas) Nine." Discusses the integration of Central High School in 1957. Also discusses his position with Worker's Defense League's Joint Apprenticeship Program, which concentrates on getting minority group members in skilled trade and craft unions.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

GREENBERG, Jack (n.d.)    RJB 514
Director and chief counsel, NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. Describes the types of cases that are defended or prosecuted by the organization.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GREENE, Bill (n.d.)    RJB 444
Assemblyman, California Legislature, 53rd assembly district. Former member, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discusses his initiation into local California politics. Also discusses his campaign issues and some of his other legislative interests, which include school decentralization and tax reform. Recalls his experiences with CORE in the South.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFIN, John Howard (1920-1980)    RJB 212
Author of Black Like Me. Recalls his childhood in the South. Discusses his school years and war experiences in France which caused him to question his ideas on race. Recalls his life as a Black man.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: June 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 90 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFIN, Noah Webster (1896- )    RJB 438
Director, Region 1 (Far West and Hawaii), National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). A leader in the fight for equalization of Black teachers' salaries in the South during the 1940's.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 1, 1969
Format: Transcript, 79 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFITH, Mahlon (1919- )    RJB 94
Tennessee State Department of Personnel. Discusses his early efforts fighting discrimination in the postal service as president of the National Alliance of Postal employees. Relates aspects of his service on the Nashville National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's Labor and Industry Committee (1960 to 1964), negotiating greater opportunities for Blacks in both the local private and government sectors. Provides examples of his efforts to help more Blacks successfully pass the civil service tests and obtain state employment. Describes his involvement in several organizations focusing on housing, health, and education of Black Tennesseans. Explains the objectives of the Tennessee Voters Council, a statewide group aimed at increasing Black political strength in the state. Expresses optimism about the improved employment and social conditions and relationships in the South as a result of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GRIFFITHS, G. H. (n.d.)    RJB 716
Member, Ford Foundation staff and former Secretary-Treasurer, Fund for the Advancement of Education. Discusses objectives of the Fund and its reasons for establishing the Civil Rights Documentation Project. Relates his impressions of the Project's value as seen from his perspective as a member of the Policy Committee set up to direct the Project's activities.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1973
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

GROPPI, Father James (1930-1985)    RJB 145
Catholic priest who led demonstrations supporting open housing in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Discusses these protest marches, the racial climate in Milwaukee, and his role as advisor to the Youth Council (Commandos) of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon Date: February 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 96 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


GUNN, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 80
Attorney. Discusses the public school situation in Cleveland, Ohio, in terms of busing and de facto segregation. Speculates on the future of Cleveland with Carl Stokes as mayor.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 15, 1967
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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HALEY, Frank (1933- )    RJB 120
Civil rights worker in Philadelphia and Chester, Pennsylvania. Member, Young Militants, a group that "polices policemen" in the Black community and during demonstrations to eliminate police brutality. Recalls demonstrations in Chester, and the treatment of protesters by police during arrest and jailing.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



HALEY, Oretha Castle (n.d.)    RJB 682
One of the founders and leaders, New Orleans chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Currently working with New Orleans chapter Urban League. Describes the conditions that led to the formation of CORE's New Orleans chapter in 1960 and to the later expulsion of the its white members in 1964. Details the re-organized chapter's return to high-profile protest activities, culminating in a Black boycott of the city's renowned Mardi Gras parade.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALEY, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 470
Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Details the circumstances behind CORE's creation. Traces CORE's transition to a mostly Black organization by the mid-1960s under Floyd McKissick's leadership, and its movement away from nonviolence and integrationism (and from its traditional white northern liberal funding base). Discusses his own role as a "troubleshooter" in the organization and describes the efforts of CORE strategists to make inroads into the Deep South to organize the Freedom Rides. Describes CORE's relationship with the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO). Discusses the ideological conflicts between Black moderates and "Black consciousness" advocates.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALL, Carsie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 685
YOUNG, Jack H.
Civil rights attorney in Mississippi. Recall their early work with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and later with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) during the Mississippi Freedom Summer of 1964. Describe their experiences defending civil rights activists in the South as "on- the-job training" in civil rights law, and discuss aspects of legal procedures employed in their cases. Contend that the burden of paying excessive cash bonds to release jailed civil rights workers "broke" CORE.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HALLINAN, Terrance (n.d.)    RJB 425
Civil rights and civil liberties attorney in San Francisco. Reflects on his personal journey from youthful suburbanite involved in the Mississippi Freedom Summer to seasoned attorney representing "hippies" and radical activists in the San Francisco Bay Area. Discusses his many arrests for participation in civil disobedience activities, which led to his being denied admittance to the California Bar. Describes his efforts to overturn that decision before the state Supreme Court, which ruled that participation in nonviolent demonstrations for peace and civil rights cannot be a basis for keeping a person out of the licensed professions. Suggests that the massive crackdowns marshalled by the state against protesters resulted in many young whites "turning off" from the civil rights movement and "turning on" to the vapid drug culture of Haight-Ashbury. Describes the objectives and activities of the DuBois Club, a multiracial, non-aligned organization of college socialists in the San Francisco area. Discusses his involvement as spokesperson for various groups of disenfranchised citizens. Expresses support for Black self- determination and leadership in the civil rights movement as well as for democratically implemented Black separatist and Black power initiatives.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAMER, Fannie Lou (1917-1977)    RJB 282
Civil rights activist in Mississippi. Recalls childhood as member of a poor sharecropper's family. Discusses voter registration in Mississippi: her attempt to become a registered voter; the reaction of her community to this effort; her role as a voter registration worker for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Relates her opposition to the compromise made to the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic Convention in 1964.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAMILTON, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 414
Chairman, political science department, Roosevelt University, Chicago. Co-author Black Power. Discusses Black consciousness in universities, including differences between white and Black student revolts; administrative and structural changes in school policies that affect Black students; the responses of white faculty and alumni to Black consciousness.
Interviewer: Erwin Knoll
Date: May 27, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HANNAH, John (n.d.)    RJB 630
First chairman, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Recalls his appointment to the position by President Eisenhower. Discusses the Commission's purpose. Looks at criticisms levied against the Commission. Discusses the relationship of successive Presidents to the Commission.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: April 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HANSON, Agnes (n.d.)    RJB 355
Elected parent-representative, governing board, Ocean Hill- Brownsville School Demonstration Project, New York City. Discusses her efforts to successfully mobilize and organize Black parents around the objective of community control of their local public schools in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville section of New York City, despite strong resistance from the city school board, the teachers' union, and the media. Cites examples of how community control improved the climate and effectiveness of the schools for Black students and their parents as well as improved relations between students, parents, and teachers. Correlates her northern, urban community's efforts with those of Black civil rights activists in the South to obtain educational equality.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 33, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARDING, Bertram M. (n.d.)    RJB 365
Director, U. S. Office of Economic Opportunity. Describes the circumstances of his entry into antipoverty agency administration, and details various aspects of program bureaucracy (technical definitions of poverty, specific programs such as Job Corps and VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America) and their objectives, and program implementation). Discusses the pros and cons of nongovernment personnel (community) involvement in program policy making. Contrasts poor people's expectations and perceptions of the "War on Poverty" with the level of funding these programs receive. Speculates on the incoming Nixon administration commitment to Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) programs in progress.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: January 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARDING, Vincent (1931- )    RJB 289
Professor. Director, Martin Luther King Memorial Center, Atlanta, Georgia. Briefly chronicles his personal history and academic pursuits to date. Recounts his efforts through the Mennonite Church to reconcile the Black and white races in southern trouble spots. Looks at the effect of Martin Luther King Jr. on the civil rights movement. Discusses purposes and plans of Martin Luther King Memorial Center.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: August 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARE, Nathan (n.d.)    RJB 340
Director, Black Studies Curriculum, San Francisco State College. Discusses his role, as a professor, in the rise of student activism at Howard University and the Black Power movement on that campus during the 1960s. Relates the repression he encountered from the Howard administration for his radical racial and political views, particularly those regarding his concept of the nature and responsibility of a "Black university."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Michael (n.d.)    RJB 215
President, 1967-68 Freshman class, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses role of Black university and student unrest at Howard.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Patricia Roberts (1924-1985)    RJB 235
Former Ambassador to Luxembourg. Professor of Law, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Briefly chronicles phases of her education and career, including her civil rights activities.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Ruth Bates (1919- )    RJB 100/700
Executive Director, Human Relations Council, District of Columbia. Discusses activities of her organization in the fields of discriminatory housing, biased employment, and police-community relations.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Robert Wright
Dates: December 7, 1967; March 16, 1971
Format: Transcripts, 44 pages; 36 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

HARRIS, Tyrone (n.d.)    RJB 677
Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Chairman of its Information Committee. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction


HARRIS, William H. (n.d.)    RJB 359
Principal, I. S. 271, Ocean Hill-Brownsville Experimental School Project, New York. Recounts his career as a teacher and administrator in New York City public schools, and depicts the circumstances leading to his selection as a principal in two junior high schools in the decentralized Ocean Hill-Brownsville (OHB) school district. Elaborates on the problems he encountered from white teachers, teacher/administrator unions, and central school board leaders resistant to the demonstration district specifically and the concept of Black community control in general. Details his efforts to recruit supportive, culturally aware, and community- sensitive teachers, and the disputes over these teachers' contracts and certification that eventually led to legal action being taken against the OHB district's community-appointed governing board and the closing of its schools. Describes the efforts and level of commitment of Black and Puerto Rican district parents in support of continuing the project, improving the quality of education in their neighborhood schools, and keeping the schools open.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


HARVILLE, Agatha (n.d.)    RJB 474
Veteran civil rights activist with Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Medical Committee on Human Rights, and the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) in Selma, Alabama. Presently director of day care centers, Selma, Alabama. Gives eyewitness account of the events of "Bloody Sunday" in which civil rights activists attempted to march across the Edmund Patterson Bridge to Montgomery (Alabama) and were met by brutal police and white citizen opposition. Recalls white medical personnel's callousness toward those injured during that march. Describes the widespread retribution against local Blacks who were involved in civil rights activities, and the efforts of Operation Freedom to help those who lost their jobs, homes, and land as a result. Discusses Black involvement in politics in Dallas County through the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC), the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), the Voters League, the Free Voters Organization, and the Progressive Movement for Human Rights; and her own work organizing day care centers and farmers' cooperatives through SHAPE (Self-Help Against Poverty Everywhere). Contends the local Economic Opportunity Board was set up to purposely disrupt and coopt indigenous Black community improvement programs in Dallas County. Discusses concerns about the role and actions of white civil rights workers Shirley Mesher of the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) and Don Jelinek of the Southern Rural Research Project.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, James (n.d.)    RJB 478
Former vice president, Demopolis (Alabama) Civic League, a Black organization geared towards gaining "first-class citizenship for all our people." Gives history of group. Discusses protest demonstrations organized by the League with aid of Southern Christian Leadership Conference, that brought little or no change in conditions for local Blacks. Recalls problems of voter registration. Discusses advantages of white participation in civil rights activities.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, John (n.d.)    RJB 477
Former civil rights activist, Demopolis, Alabama. Discusses unsuccessful attempts to integrate public facilities including schools in Demopolis 1964-65; boycott of Black high school in effort to remove Black principal who supported segregated education; mass demonstrations with aid of Southern Christian Leadership Conference; job discrimination.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HASKINS, Kenneth (n.d.)    RJB 476
Former principal, Morgan Community School, Washington, D. C. Recalls early problems at Morgan. Discusses innovative changes at the school and adaptation difficulties. Describes some of his theories of education.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 24, 1969
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAWKINS, Augustus F. (1907- ) RJB 376
Representative (D.-California), U. S. Congress. Discusses history of Title VII (equal employment) of 1964 Civil Rights Act. Looks at anti-poverty programs, and the relationship of that program to the Watts riot, 1965. Discusses operation of Congressional committees.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HAYLING, Robert Bagner (n.d.) RJB 28
Former leader, St. Augustine, Florida, civil rights movement. Discusses mass protest demonstrations that occurred in his city in 1963-64. Reviews events leading to demonstrations, the involvements of Martin Luther King and the then Vice-President, Lyndon B. Johnson.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 16, 1967
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HECHINGER, John W. (1920- )    RJB 336
Chairman, City Council, District of Columbia. Discusses the Federal government-D. C. government relationship. Describes some of Washington's problems in the areas of housing, schools, commuter taxes, and police-community relations.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEDGEMAN, Anna Arnold (1899- )    RJB 9/304
Member, executive staff, National Council of Churches. Discusses her early years as a staff associate of the YWCA. Recalls establishing a union primarily for Black female laundry workers in the New York area about 1929. Discusses duties as consultant on racial problems for city of New York; as executive director, National Council, Fair Employment Practices Committee; with Federal Security Agency; as assistant to the Mayor of New York City; on the Commission on Religion and Race, National Council of Churches. Describes travel in India and Africa. Comments on desegregation of facilities in Washington, D. C. Describes interest in Black Muslims; organization of March on Washington; organization of Poor People's Campaign. Comments on rebellion on college campuses; interest in Black studies; concept of Black Power; future of nonviolence. Discusses educational problems in New York City and concept of community control. Comments on rise of Black capitalism. Describes role of Black middle-class. Assesses civil rights movement at present and comments on role played by white liberals.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Robert E. Martin
Dates: July 25, 1967; August 27, 1968
Format: Transcripts, 37 pages; 98 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEFFERNAN, Elaine (n.d.)    RJB 457
Former administrative assistant to Peter Libassi, Office for Civil Rights, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Discusses Title VI of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; its origin purpose, opposition, and enforcement procedures.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 56 page; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HEIGHT, Dorothy (1913- )    RJB 536
President, National Council of Negro Women. Director, Office of Racial Justice, YWCA. Discusses the Council; its origin, purpose, programs, funding, and relationship to the YWCA.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENDERSON, Lloyd (n.d.)    RJB 458
Chief, Educational Branch, Office for Civil Rights, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Describes the difference in educational discrimination in the North and South. Details the efforts of southern congressmen, especially Sen. Stennis of Mississippi, to block and defy civil rights laws and rulings. Identifies Alabama as the state most resistant to desegregation efforts. Explains the difficulties in attacking de facto school segregation in the North ("making a southern case" in northern school districts). Discusses federal efforts to obtain state compliance with Title VI by leveraging negotiations with federal funding stipulations. Praises decision to transfer responsibility for enforcing Title VI from Justice Department to HEW. Describes changes in government's stance on desegregation during the Nixon administration, especially its focus on contesting the legality of calls for all-Black dormitories and Black Studies departments at predominantly white colleges.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENDERSON, Mae (n.d.)    RJB 211
Student, Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota. Relates some of the social, cultural, and academic problems of the 40 Black students at the school. Discusses the objectives and projects of the Negro Affairs Committee, a Black awareness group at Carleton.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: June 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Aaron (1922- )    RJB 326
Chairman, Mississippi chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Co-chairman Mississippi committee seeking election of 1968 Humphrey-Muskie ticket. Relates history of his involvement with the Mississippi NAACP and his close friendships with state field secretary Medgar Evers and Evers's brother, Charles. Discusses his many arrests on trumped-up charges due to his civil rights activities. Recalls the work of Bob Moses and the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO) in bringing white college students to Mississippi during the Freedom Summer. Reflects on the circumstances leading to the murders of Goodman, Swerner, and Chaney. Cites the reasons behind COFO's creation and demise after the NAACP pulled out of Mississippi due to the excessive expenses of mounting a civil rights offensive in that state. Describes his campaign for Mississippi governor as part of the Freedom Vote project of 1963 as more a bid to increase Black voter registration than a serious effort to unseat the incumbent politicians. Comments on the activities and role of his white running mate for lieutenant governor, Rev. Edwin King. Discusses national Democratic Party politics and the presidential campaign of 1964. Expounds on the idea of a biracial, integrated society.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Anthony R. (1938- )    RJB 225
Deputy national coordinator, Poor People's Campaign. Describes the myriad logistical considerations delegated to the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's Washington, D.C. headquarters staff in planning and executing the Resurrection City component of the 1968 March on Washington: food, housing, communications, utilities, sanitation, etc. Critiques SCLC's decision-making process and cites its efforts to involve more local (Washington, DC) Blacks in the encampment project. Discusses the impact of Martin Luther King's death on the march and on SCLC. Recalls a police raid at SCLC headquarters.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 15, 1968
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Clifton (1939- )    RJB 112
Former civil rights activist with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Civic Interest Group (Baltimore, MD) and Northern Student Movement. Recalls his protest activities and projects with these organizations, including the rise of SNCC and the end of the Northern Student Movement. Discusses efforts of Morgan State College students to desegregate public facilities in Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 153 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Milton (n.d.)    RJB 699
President, Republic of New Africa (RNA). Recalls some events in his life that led to his embracing a separatist philosophy; including his experience as member of Detroit City Council; organization of the Freedom Now Party and its role in state elections; organization of the Malcolm X Society; organization of Republic of New Africa from Malcolm X Society in 1968. Discusses the philosophy of RNA, its request for five southern states for Blacks and the split in the organization over ideological differences.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HENRY, Theodore (n.d.)    RJB 485
Former leader, Youth Council, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in Jackson, Mississippi. Outlines the Mississippi NAACP Youth Council's positions and activities under the guidance of state field secretary Medgar Evers. Describes members' reactions to Evers' assassination in 1963, and the atmosphere of racial tension in Jackson after Evers' death. Shares his views on the future of race relations in the state, signs of Black progress in employment and housing, student protests against the war in Viet Nam, the significance of the Black Power movement, and the philosophies of Malcolm X.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HERNANDEZ, Aileen C. (1926- )    RJB 162
Former member, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Explains why she believed the Commission was ineffective. Discusses minority group unemployment, including unique methods of reaching the hard-core unemployed; Plans for Progress Program under the Kennedy Administration, in which over 300 companies were to actively engage in the recruitment of minority groups; unions' role in Black employment.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: March 1968
Format: Transcript, 57 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HICKS, Jennifer Olivia (1951- )    RJB 688
Student, Jackson State College, Jackson, Mississippi. Explains how the shooting of Black antiwar protesters at Jackson State opened her eyes to the need for Blacks to speak out against social injustice and oppression. Discusses the letter of protest she wrote to the governor that was published in the local newspapers. Describes the mood and events on campus on the day of the shooting.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HICKS, Robert (n.d.) RJB 473
Vice President, Voter's League, Bogalusa, Louisiana. One of the founders of Deacons for Defense.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HILL, Norman (n.d.) RJB 532
Associate Executive Director, A. Philip Randolph Institute. Formerly, staff coordinator, 1963 March on Washington. Discusses the March, especially how he became involved; responsibilities as staff coordinator; changing purpose of March; role of the "six major" civil rights groups; value of the project.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HILLIARD, Kenneth (n.d.)    RJB 587
Student, University of Maryland, College Park Campus. Coordinator, Intensive Education Development Program, a project to aid students with poor skills. Discusses structure and goals of program. Comments on being Black in a white school, irrelevancy of Black Student Union to total Black population; student protest.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HIRSCHKOPF, Philip (n.d.) RJB 363
Civil rights-civil liberties attorney in Virginia. Recalls organization of Law Students Civil Rights Research Council, in which law student interns worked in the South on civil rights cases. Discusses his activities with the Chase Fund on Teachers Rights, which is concerned with teacher discrimination litigation. Gives his ideas on why Blacks cannot and do not get justice in American courts.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 6, 1969
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOBSON, Julius (1922-1977) RJB 4/322
Plaintiff in Hobson v. Hansen, which ruled against de facto segregation in Washington, D. C. schools. Discusses his active participation in breaking the segregated hiring practices in D. C.'s business and commercial district. Also discusses his bankruptcy campaign method by which the poor can alleviate some of their debt.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Erwin Knoll
Dates: July 3, 1967; May 17, 1968
Format: Transcripts, 47 pages; 39 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction at any time in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc., without permission of the oral author's heirs, legal representatives, or assigns.

HODGES, Luther H. (1898-1979)     RJB 372
Former governor, North Carolina. Former Secretary of Commerce. Discusses his position on integration during the 1950's, including a local law under which the state gave tuition grants to parents who did not wish to send their children to integrated schools. Recalls roles of some southern governors who attempted to have Federal troops removed from Little Rock, Arkansas, during the 1957 school crisis.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: January 30, 1969
Format: Transcript, 39, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOFFMAN, Rufus (n.d.) RJB 195
Teacher, Bullock County, Alabama. Treasurer, Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA), Union Springs, Alabama. Describes the work of antipoverty agencies in Bullock County, Alabama. Reports the findings of his own investigations into the inequities fostered by that county's dual school system, and relates his experiences with the covertly and overtly racist tactics used by whites to discourage Blacks from sending their children to integrated schools once enrolled. Describes his own and other Blacks' challenges to voter registration irregularities aimed at maintaining white advantage in the county.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: June 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions:  Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

HOLLAND, Arthur J. (1918- )    RJB 3
Former mayor, Trenton, New Jersey (1959-66) who attributes his defeat primarily to his family's move to a low income predominately Black neighborhood.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: June 30 1967
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HOLLOWELL, Donald L. (ca. 1916- )    RJB 187
Civil rights attorney. Discusses some of his cases, including one involving Martin Luther King Jr. and the sit-in trials.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOLMAN, M. Carl (1919-1988) RJB 52
Deputy Staff director, U. S. Commission Civil Rights. Discusses Atlanta student movement of early 1960's and some civil rights activities of Martin Luther King in Atlanta. Also reveals efforts of Civil Rights Commission to persuade Federal government to cancel subsidization of segregation and discrimination.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HORNE, Frank S. (1899-deceased, n.d.) RJB 307
Expert on housing problems, New York City. Discusses the efforts of Blacks to enter government service and impact public policy formulation from the New Deal to the Affirmative Action eras, particularly in the areas of housing equity and urban development. Reflects at length on the influential roles of Mary McLeod Bethune and the so-called "Black Cabinet" of the FDR years, and of Robert Weaver of FHA and HUD. Comments on contemporary race relations in the urban North.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUCK, Thomas E. (n.d.) RJB 230
Member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Western regional coordinator, Poor People's Campaign. Describes his duties in helping organize the Poor People's Campaign march on Washington, D.C., specifically his role in getting minorities other than Blacks--notably, Indians, Chicanos, Puerto Ricans, and poor whites- -involved. Discusses an early organizing meeting sponsored by SCLC in which it was decided that the march would focus on the economic issue of national poverty rather than on racial issues. Details the management of bus caravans of participants from the West and describes the many logistical and ideological conflicts that arose between the diverse racial and ethnic groups once marchers arrived in the capitol. Discusses the differences in organizing styles among the various groups. Explains the concept of the Poor People's Embassy.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUSER, Daniel (n.d.) RJB 639
Founder and former president, Autauga County (Prattville) Alabama Movement. Active with Alabama Action Committee in Montgomery Alabama. Describes local grassroots organizing against racist government and voting restrictions in Prattville, Alabama. Discusses the change in tactics employed by his association after 1967, when Stokely Carmichael and Rap Brown of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) came in to help them organize around more militant strategies. Attributes the Alabama Action Council's self-defense stance to the cessation of whites' harassment of its members. Discusses background of law suit brought by the Alabama National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) against the AAC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 37, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOUSER, George M. (n.d.)    RJB 39
One of the founders of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and its national secretary from 1944 to mid-1950's. Traces the origin and development of that organization, including some of its most outstanding projects.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HOWARD, Mrs. Wyona (n.d.)    RJB 605
Director, Grass Roots Organization Workers (GROW), an inner-city community maintenance program in Detroit, Michigan. Discusses the goals, activities, funding, and successes of GROW, which is composed of residents of 120 city blocks.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

HOWE, Harold, II (n.d.) RJB 344
U. S. Commissioner of Education. Reviews elements of "Federal School Desegregation Policies." Discusses the "Free Choice Plan" and other means designed to eliminate dual school systems "with all deliberate speed."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

HUITT, Ralph K. (n.d.)    RJB 456
Former assistant secretary, Health, Education and Welfare for Legislation and Congressional Relations. Describes the legislative activities of HEW staffers in getting the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1967 passed, particularly his own role as HEW congressional liaison. Identifies several southern and Republican congressmen as especially resistant to Title VI (the school desegregation section) of the Act, and as lobbying to shift the focus of legislative action to de facto segregation of the North and away from the dual systems of education in the South. Explains why enforcement of Title VI was moved out of the Justice Department and into the Office of Education. Describes an impromptu meeting between HEW officials and Poor People's March activists. Discusses LBJ's political ambitions and achievements in the context of his southern background.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Tape length:
Restrictions: Standard

HULETT, John (n.d.)    RJB 200
Director, Lowndes County Community Action Program. Member, Lowndes County Christian Movement for Human Rights and Cooperative, Lowndes County Co-op in Alabama. Discusses activities of the Christian Movement in the areas of voter registration, employment, and training programs. Recalls origin of Freedom Party, its problems with recognition and intimidation by whites. Explains why the Party's candidates lost 1966 elections even though the county was 81 per cent Black. Recalls methods used by whites to circumvent integrated education. Discusses white economic power structure in the county and its effect on Blacks.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 30, 1968
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

HUMPHREY, Hubert H. (1911-1978)    RJB 718
Senator (D.-Minnesota), U. S. Congress. Former Vice President of the United States. Discusses the influences that stimulated his commitment to the civil rights cause. Chronicles programs he initiated as Mayor of Minneapolis which changed the city's reputation from that of one of the most anti-Semitic in the United States to that of a model municipality for guaranteeing equal protection under the law to all of its citizens. Recounts other personal, political and legislative endeavors that he participated in to insure the civil rights of minorities and passage of civil rights legislation. Briefly reviews Lyndon Johnson's key role in this struggle.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: August 3, 1973
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 60 minutes
Restrictions: No reproductions

HURLEY, Ruby (n.d.)    RJB 122
Director, Southeast Regional Office, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses her career with the NAACP. Also relates her role in finding a concert site for Marian Anderson after she was barred from Constitution Hall in Washington. Discusses her investigation of the Emmett Till murder and lynchings in Mississippi.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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JACK, Hulan (n.d.)    RJB 627
Member, New York State Assembly. Former president, Manhattan Borough. Reflects on highlights of his tenure as the first Black president of the Borough of Manhattan in the 40s and 50s. Recalls the circumstances behind his selection as a candidate for the office, identifies other key players in New York City politics, and details some of his more memorable achievements. Debates the merits, for Blacks, of machine politics over liberal reform politics, citing examples of greater progress for Blacks during the former era. Discusses the demise of Adam Clayton Powell and Charles Rangel's campaign to take Powell's seat. Denounces the contemporary drug and crime problem in Harlem. Assesses Black involvement in Democratic Party politics in New York City and the state. Stresses the importance of the Black vote and advocates Black loyalty to the two-party system and to working shrewdly within that system.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



JACKSON, Ellen (n.d.)    RJB 65
Co-founder and director, Operation Exodus, a privately financed community-run busing program in the Roxbury area of Boston, Massachusetts.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without her written permission. Upon her death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Emma (Mrs. Mathew Jackson Sr.) (n.d.)    RJB 271
Member, Lowndes County Co-op, Inc., Lowndes County Freedom Movement, and Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA). Discusses the harassment of her family because she housed civil rights workers in Lowndes County, Alabama in 1964-65.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Emory O. (n.d.)    RJB 136
Editor, The Birmingham World, Birmingham, Alabama. Discusses editorial policy of his paper regarding civil rights. Enumerates several local political action groups and civil rights organizations. Discusses activities of NAACP chapter, including voter registration and the admission of Autherine Lucy and Polly Miles to the University of Alabama. Assesses the Birmingham civil rights movement and its problems after the withdrawal of Martin Luther King Jr. and his team.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Espanola (1933- )    RJB 430
Community organization supervisor, San Francisco, California. Describes her civil rights activism, first as an organizer for a welfare rights advocacy group in San Francisco's Black communities, and later with a senior citizens' rights group. Comments on issues of welfare rights, child care, employment, housing, and community improvement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, H. Ralph (n.d.)    RJB 247
Discusses the Memphis garbage strike, including the Black community's support of the sanitation workers in their drive for unionization; Mayor Loeb's reaction to Black demands; purpose and effect of the boycott; why Martin Luther King Jr. and other Black "leaders" were brought into the situation; the proposed reserve police force.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, John (1946- )     RJB 272 Former director, Alabama State Project, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls numerous associations and experiences as a member of SNCC. Discusses origin and activities of Lowndes County Freedom Party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 73 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JACKSON, Mathew, Sr. (1910-deceased)    RJB 270
Chairman, Lowndes County Co-op, Inc. Leader in Lowndes County Freedom Movement. Lowndes County representative, Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA). Discusses voter registration in Alabama in 1965. Recounts his venture into politics. Discusses Lowndes County Co-op, SWAFCA, and the Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author's heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JACKSON, Maynard H., Jr. (1938- )    RJB 635/705
Vice Mayor, Atlanta, Georgia. In the first of two interviews he provides insights on his personal background, his politically oriented family, his early professional work, and volunteer legal work providing pro bono legal services to the poor. Discusses his entry into politics--an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the Georgia House of Representatives--during which he established his precedent of forming consciously integrated campaign staffs. Explains how he was elected vice mayor of Atlanta, and describes the duties of his office. Offers general comments on racial politics in Atlanta and Black political direction, emphasizing his support for interracial cooperation and respect. In the second interview Jackson expresses his disappointment with the 1972 presidential campaign of Democrat George McGovern; claims that McGovern took Black votes "for granted." Gives reasons for his support of Black congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's bid for the Democratic nomination and shares his views on other Democratic candidates Hubert Humphrey, "Scoop" Jackson, and George Wallace. Discusses the differences between northern- and southern-style racism and the South's "new" and "old"-style politicians. Compares Atlanta to predominantly Black northern cities such as Gary and Newark. Discusses class struggle and Black options for involvement in political decision making at the national and state levels. Advocates intensified Black political action and economic advancement. Describes his poor working relationship with Atlanta mayor Sam Massell, and reveals his personal political aspirations.
Interviewers: Robert Wright; Edward Thompson III
Dates: October 12, 1970; December 19, 1972
Format: Transcripts, 29 pages; 25 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAMES, C. L. R. (1901- )    RJB 512
Author. Recalls events surrounding the writing of several of his works, including The Black Jacobins. Discusses association with World Socialist Workers Movement and Leon Trotsky.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 10 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAMES, H. Rhett (n.d.)    RJB 184
President, Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC). Chairman, Council of NAACP Branches, Dallas, Texas. Discusses methods employed to facilitate desegregation of public schools and facilities. Outlines NAACP programs and success of OIC.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JAVITS, Jacob (1904-1986)    RJB 413
Senator (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Discusses his party's ideology including its desire and need for Black support; Republican-Dixiecrat Southern alignment; influence of big business on the party. Defines the goals of the Nixon Administration in the field of civil rights and his objectives in the same area.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: May 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 8 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JELINEK, Donald (1934- )    RJB 268
Civil rights attorney, formerly associated with Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee. Discusses his association with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the early 1960's. Also discusses his current endeavor, Southern Rural Research Project, "designed to help poor farmers combat discrimination by Federal employers."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JENKINS, Esau (n.d.)    RJB 206
Community leader, Charleston, South Carolina. Community organizer, Penn Center. Member of the board, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Describes the climate of racial awareness and separatism among Blacks on John's Island and in Charleston, South Carolina, especially with regard to Blacks gaining control of the schools they attend. Discusses Black Charlestonians' self-help efforts and his role in establishing a community credit union and recreational center. Recalls community efforts to assist the Poor People's March in 1968 despite the resistance of local whites, by arranging food and housing for the marchers as they passed through the area.
Interviewer: Jim Leeson
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JENKINS, Eunice (n.d.)    RJB 449
Former worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi. Discusses the failure of Head Start and other anti- poverty programs and civil rights activities in her area, citing the control by whites, resulting apathy of Blacks, and organizational rivalry as the major reasons.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JENKINS, Linda (n.d.)    RJB 450
Former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) worker in Indianola, Mississippi, 1964-65. Criticizes the role of out-of- state SNCC workers in her area. Comments on the collapse of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Discusses how the local anti-poverty program curtailed civil rights activities. Discusses methods used by whites to avoid school desegregation and the inequality of public education for Blacks. Relates conditions at Mississippi Valley State College that led to student boycott.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 13, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Arthur L. (1926- )    RJB 48
Former executive secretary, Detroit branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates role of that organization in fighting discrimination in Detroit during his 14-year term.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JOHNSON, Beulah (n.d.)    RJB 25
Director, Macon County (Alabama) Community Action Program. Discusses obstacles and efforts involved in voter registration in Macon County, Alabama. Also relates the organization of Alabama Democratic Conference to achieve political unity. Discusses programs of her branch of the Office of Economic Opportunity.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Eddie Bernice (n.d.)    RJB 701
Member, Texas House of Representatives. Discusses her campaign for the Texas House of Representatives and her rise to national prominence as a member of the credentials committee during the 1972 Democratic Party convention in Miami. Describes the circumstances behind several minority challenges to delegate seatings at that convention, recalling her own input to the decisions that were made. Provides a detailed account of New York congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's bid to gain the first-ballot nomination of the party at the convention, and reflects on the responses of other Black and white politicians to Chisolm's tactics. Shares her views on the roles of Blacks and women in party politics.
Interviewer: Norma Leonard
Date: July 17, 1972
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Leroy (n.d.)    RJB 636
Senator, Georgia General Assembly. Gives educational background and initiation into politics. Discusses his campaigns, problems as the first Black in the General Assembly in 92 years, legislative assignments, and accomplishments in the legislature. Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Robert E. (1922- )    RJB 33
Managing editor, Jet magazine. Discusses role of Negro press in civil rights. Recalls his association with Martin Luther King Jr. during the Montgomery bus boycott, and early protest activities of entertainer Dick Gregory.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 6, 1967
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, Theron (n.d.)    RJB 451
Chief, Northern and Western Branch, Division of Equal Educational Opportunities, Department of Health, Education and Welfare. Describes ethnic and racial discrimination against Jews, Italians, and Blacks in New York's state colleges, and discusses federal efforts to achieve racial balance in higher education in the North.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: July 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 10 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JOHNSON, William A. (1942- )    RJB 221
Instructor in political science, Flint Community College, Flint, Michigan. Former student, Howard University, during administration-student controversies of late 1960's. Recalls some of the elements of concern to students, including dismissal of certain faculty members, lack of adequate parking facilities for commuting students, and compulsory ROTC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, Edward E. (n.d.)    RJB 202
Civil rights activist in Alabama. Discusses many of his activities as a civil rights demonstrator and agitator.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

JONES, Frankie (Mrs.) (n.d.) RJB 527
Former president of the Berkeley [California] National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls reasons for becoming involved with the civil rights movement in Berkeley. Discusses various civil rights successes she has worked on behalf of, including: passage of a fair housing ordinance, busing to achieve school desegregation, and the establishment of a Human Relations Commission.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: March 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, James (ca. 1942- )    RJB 642
Training director, Federation of Southern Cooperatives, "a technical assistance organization for low-income co-ops." Former Arkansas state field director, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Discusses various forms of aid given to co-ops including financial assistance, marketing information and training for production of specific crops. Relates some of problems that often plague low-income co-ops. Discusses his sit-in activities in various cities in Arkansas that led to his expulsion from school and subsequent association with SNCC.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 15, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, James Edward (n.d.)    RJB 445
Former president, Board of Education, Los Angeles Unified and Junior College Districts. Discusses means of improving urban public education and making it more relevant and useful to minority group students. Recalls many innovative programs and activities in which he was involved to further these ends.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JONES, Joseph Charles (1937- )    RJB 19
Director, Action Coordinating Committee to End Segregation in the Suburbs (ACCESS). Former member of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Remembers his role in the early sit-ins in Charlotte, North Carolina. Recalls the emergence of SNCC and its voter registration program in the South. Discusses ACCESS, which is concerned with the open housing issue in metropolitan District of Columbia area.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 10, 1967
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JONES, Lewis W. (deceased n.d.)    RJB 24
Research professor of sociology, Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. Discusses and analyzes the development of the civil rights protest movement. Relates results of sociological studies he conducted, associated with the movement.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

JONES, Rachel (n.d.)    RJB 201
Recalls activities as a member of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Greensboro, Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 31, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

JORDAN, Joseph (n.d.)     RJB 611
Member, City Council, Norfolk, Virginia.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

JORDAN, Vernon (1935- )    RJB 130/405
Director, Voter Education Project, Southern Regional Council. Discusses Project's role in providing technical and financial assistance to organizations engaged in voter registration in the South. Explains why some Blacks do not register to vote. Appraises role of Federal government in enforcing Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Interviewers: John Britton; Stanley H. Smith
Dates: January 26, 1968; August 1968
Format: Transcripts, 13 pages; 21 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

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KASTENMEIER, Robert W. (1924- )    RJB 380
Representative (D.-Wisconsin), U. S. Congress. Describes his activities as member of the House judiciary committee during the 1950s and 1960s, when that committee, dominated though it was by southern segregationist Democrats, handled "the lion's share" of civil rights legislation. Gives account of the evolution of several civil rights bills of the 60s, especially the 1964 civil rights and 1965 voting rights acts, noting the political wrangling over clauses, amendments, enforcement, and appropriations. Discusses the parts played by John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Lyndon B. Johnson these efforts. Recalls his role on the Democratic Party credentials committee during the 1968 convention, particularly his support for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party's challenge to state party regulars.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: April 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KEEVER, C. M. (n.d.)    RJB 103
First white mayor elected in Tuskegee, Alabama, by a predominately Black electorate. Also, first mayor to preside over a bi-racial city council. Discusses the challenges and accomplishments of his administration.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 5 pages; tape not available
Restrictions The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KELLER, Rosa (1912- )    RJB 121
Discusses her role in integrating the public library, desegregating Tulane University, and developing an integrated housing area for citizens displaced by city construction in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENNEDY, Joseph J. (n.d.)    RJB 431
Judge, San Francisco Municipal Court. Board chairman, Economic Opportunities Council, San Francisco. Former president, Northern California Area Branch, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Reflects on his legal career and early NAACP involvement in the areas of equal housing and employment opportunity. Chronicles the activities of other San Francisco-Bay Area organizations that promoted coalition politics and lobbying tactics over direct action strategies. Comments on national NAACP leadership figures Roy Wilkins and George Mitchell, stressing the organization's need to establish stronger linkage with younger, more militant groups, expand its regional focus out of the South, and move away from its gradualist orientation. Describes the status of the civil rights movement and the effects of federal antipoverty programs. Discusses the implications of the Black Power movement and the concept of the Third World.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENYATTA, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 631
Veteran Black activist. Close associate, Malcolm X. Recalls several experiences of raw racism he encountered in prison in the 1940s and as a soldier stationed in the South during World War II. Details his close association with Malcolm X in the Nation of Islam and later the Organization for Afro-American Unity (OAAU). Describes several attempts on Malcolm X's life and offers his own theories about Malcolm X's assassination. Discusses Martin Luther King's activities in Harlem after Malcolm X's death. Gives his opinions of Adam Clayton Powell's and H. Rap Brown's leadership. Compares conditions for Blacks in the North and in Africa to those in the South. Presents theory indicting the Black criminal "underworld" as conspiring with white elites to defeat Black liberation movements.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KENYATTA, Muhammed (n.d.)    RJB 522
Staff member, Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM). Describes the objectives and activities of the self-help, Mississippi Action for Progress organization. Discusses objectives of federal and foundation-financed antipoverty programs. Calls for intensified Black economic development programs, citing the example of several farmers' coops he has organized or worked with.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KIBBIT, Margaret (1946- )    RJB 287
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) candidate for sheriff, Sunflower County, Mississippi. Discusses her campaign and her political party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Annie Mae (1904- )    RJB 331
Former chairwoman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Sunflower County. Discusses voter registration in her area, lack of Black support for MFDP candidates during elections, developmental programs for young Black children.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, C. B. (n.d.)    RJB 392
General counsel to Albany (Georgia) Movement. Defines his role as such. Explains how he uses the law to benefit the poor and Black. Recalls lack of federal aid to Blacks in the movement, and subterfuges of white community to stymie the demonstrators.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Carole (n.d.)    RJB 89
Member, Welfare Grievance Committee, Cleveland, Ohio, an organization of welfare mothers who protest state violations of welfare laws and recipient's rights, and lobby for welfare reform. Discusses problems of families on public assistance. Recalls march from Cleveland to Columbus, Ohio to dramatize need for reform.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Celes (n.d.)    RJB 420
President, Los Angeles chapter National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Member, "Young Turks," NAACP. Suggests policy reforms for national office of the organization, including shorter national conventions that will economically enable "grass roots" and members to participate in policy making, less direction from the main office and more assistance and support to local chapters. Comments on his move to have Roy Wilkins replaced as director.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Edwin (1936- )    RJB 686
Former chaplain, Tougaloo College, Tougaloo, Mississippi. Discusses the role of whites in the civil rights movement, relating the reasons for his own reluctant entry but later deep involvement. Discusses the 1963 Freedom Vote project--a mock statewide election staged with the help of northern white college students--which ran Aaron Henry of the Mississippi National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) for governor and himself for lieutenant governor. Comments on the role and strategies of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party and its formal challenge to the state Democratic regulars during the 1968 national convention; race relations in Mississippi during the 1960s; the heightening conflicts between police and civil rights activists; the growing mood of Black militancy; Medgar Evers' activities on college campuses; and the Freedom Summer of 1964.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Ernest (n.d.)    RJB 607
KING, Mrs. (n.d.)
Joint interview Director and co-organizer respectively, Black Catholics in Action, Detroit, Michigan. Describes purposes and activities of group. Discusses some of its accomplishments. Looks at discrimination against Blacks within the Catholic Church.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Lonnie (1936- )    RJB 31
Former chairman, Atlanta Student Movement. Recalls origin, victories, and defeats of the mass student protest in Atlanta. Discusses his participation in the organization of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), dissent of Howard University's law students, Urban League projects, and community programs with the United Planning Organization in Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KING, Melvin (1928- )    RJB 63
Director, Urban League of Greater Boston. Discusses active and proposed programs of the League in his area. Deals at length with the problems of public education in Boston.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 63 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KING, Slater (n.d.)    RJB 390
President of the Albany (Georgia) Movement. Recalls founding and objectives of movement, principal persons involved, and effects of demonstrations on Black and white community. Recounts role of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) in the activities. Discusses present goals of the movement's leaders for Albany.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 31, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KIRCHHEIMER, Peter (n.d.)    RJB 14
Student activist and member of Students for Democratic Society (SDS) at Columbia University. Compares and contrasts ideology and tactics of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and SDS.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: August 1, 1967
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KIRK, David (n.d.)    RJB 51
Founder and coordinator of Emmaus House in Harlem, a "store-front" church designed to serve spiritual and community needs of the inner-city.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

KLUNDER, Joanne M. (n.d.)    RJB 86
Widow of the Reverend Bruce Klunder, who was killed by a bulldozer while participating in a civil rights demonstration at a school construction site in Cleveland, Ohio, April 7, 1964. Relates the events leading to her husband's death. Discusses the organization of the local chapter of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and her hopes for Cleveland under Mayor Carl Stokes.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 16, 1967
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

KOONTZ, Elizabeth D. (1919-1989)    RJB 556
Director, Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor. Former president, National Education Association (NEA). Discusses the movement in the South for equalization of Black teachers' salaries and desegregation. Recalls her election to the presidency of NEA and her major function in that role. Gives opinion on busing to achieve school integration. Discusses the objectives of the Women's Bureau and some of its programs.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: May 25, 1970
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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LANDRY, Lawrence (1935- )    RJB 35
National Chairman of ACT, a loosely-knit federation of civil rights activists. Former chairman of Chicago Friends of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), a support and fund raising group for SNCC. Organizer of Chicago school boycott, first protest of de facto school segregation.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 7, 1967
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

LANE, Mary (n.d.)    RJB 448
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee (SNCC) in Greenwood, Mississippi. Greenwood sponsor of Child Development Group in Mississippi. Member, Leflore County Voters League. Discusses some of SNCC's leaders during the 1960's. Cites disadvantages of having SNCC workers in her area. Looks at structural weaknesses in SNCC. Discusses "Mississippi Summer Project" and problems in voter registration. Assesses value of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) to its constituents and at the 1964 Democratic National Convention.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LANG, Winston E. (n.d.)    RJB 604
Assistant director, National Urban League, Detroit chapter. Discusses a joint community-Urban League program, Citizens Campaign for Crime Prevention and Leadership Development. Describes effect of group on local crime and relationship of police department to program. Discusses other League services, e.g. employment, research department on Black culture, housing.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 7, 1970
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LAWRENCE, Charles F. (n.d.)    RJB 114
Staff associate, Philadelphia Tutorial Service. Discusses activities of the Service which tutors students after school. Describes his experiences with C. B. King and the Law Students Civil Rights Research Council. Recalls his efforts to improve housing conditions in ghetto of New Haven, Connecticut. Discusses his voter registration activities in the South and the Harlem (New York) riot in 1964.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 72 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LAWSON, James (1928- )    RJB 610
President, United African Nationalist Movement. Chairman, Harlem Council for Economic Development. Describes efforts to organize an independent labor union in Harlem and a "don't buy where you can't work" campaign in the 1930s. Traces his involvement in the Garveyite movement and an outgrowth organization, the United African Nationalist Movement. Focuses on his roles as an advisor to African leaders Haile Selassie and Patrice Lumumba, as an attendee at several Pan-African conferences, and as an international businessman. Discusses his role in establishing a controversial medical facility in Harlem that was shut down for what he posits were racially motivated reasons. Compares the philosophical orientations of the civil rights and Black Nationalist movements, describing the latter as a struggle for human rights and dignity rather than for integration.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 63, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEAKE, George (n.d.)    RJB 394
Discusses his civil rights activities in Gastonia, North Carolina; Charlotte, North Carolina; and Buffalo, New York. Reviews his experiences as a Freedom Rider. Makes reference to his campaign for political office in Charlotte, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, Anthony (n.d.)    RJB 105
A plaintiff in Lee and U. S. v. Macon County (Alabama) Board of Education. One of two persons to desegregate undergraduate school of Auburn University. Discusses factors and problems involved in related activities.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: December 1967
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, George Washington (n.d.)    RJB 246/327
Republican leader, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses Negro control of the Republican Party in his city in 1948. Recalls support of the Elks in school desegregation cases.
Interviewers: James M. Mosby Jr; Allen Coleman
Dates: July 9, 1968; November 1968
Format: Transcripts, 25 pages; 27 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEE, Gerald (n.d.)    RJB 677 Student at American University. Member of American University's Organization of Afro-American Students and Chairman of its Administration and Publication Committee. Discusses the evolution of the organization from a social to a political action group. Describes the campus climate that Blacks encountered in the late 60's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 3, 1971
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

LEIGHTON, George (1912- )    RJB 38
Circuit Court Judge, Cook County, Illinois. Recalls civil rights law cases with which he was connected. Remembers NAACP's fight against race restriction covenants in Chicago. Discusses Chicago and Black life there.
Interviewer:
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 35 pages;
Restrictions: CLOSED

LEMONS, Arthur (n.d.)    RJB 599

Director, Community Relations Department, Office of the Mayor, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses in detail the services and sub- divisions of his department that function to "bring the community closer to city government," including a crisis contingency plan, equal employment program, rumor control center, town hall meetings, and neighborhood community relations board.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEONARD, Jerris (n.d.)    RJB 678
Assistant attorney general, Civil Rights Division, U. S. Department of Justice. Cites previous civil rights activities. Discusses Nixon Administration's approach to civil rights, terming it "negotiation, conciliation, reconciliation." Discusses achievements of his division in Southern school desegregation, equal employment, and the initiation of law suits resulting from violation of court orders. Comments on teacher training grants designed to upgrade credentials of Southern Black teachers. Cites objectives of his division.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEONARD, Margaret (n.d.)    RJB 15
Former "Freedom Rider." Discusses her association with Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) as a Southern white co-ed, and the trend of that organization today. Gives purpose and activities of her present enterprise, International Self-Help Housing Association.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without her written permission. Upon her death, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LEVISON, Stanley (n.d.)    RJB 539
Friend of late Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses "In Friendship," a Northern-based fund raising organization to aid Southerners who suffered abuses or losses because of their civil rights activities. Recalls origin of Southern Christian Leadership Conference and its initial purpose--support of boycotts in various cities. Remembers first meeting with Martin Luther King Jr.; initial impressions. Discusses philosophy of nonviolence and its effect on Montgomery bus boycott.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Delano (1938- )    RJB 714
General Public Affairs Manager, C & P Telephone Company. Former administrative assistant to Delegate Walter Fauntroy (D.-District of Columbia). Former legislative assistant to Senator Edward Brooke (R.-Massachusetts). Recounts his early experiences as a government lawyer and as a Peace Corps administrator in Africa. Recalls his later roles as legal assistant to Senator Edward Brooke (D-MA) and chief of staff and community liaison for Washington, DC Delegate Walter Fauntroy. Traces the political and organizational maturation of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC), its evolving legislative agenda and political potential. Appraises New York congresswoman Shirley Chisholm's 1972 presidential campaign, explaining why the CBC did not officially endorse her bid and why Fauntroy ran against her as a "favorite son" candidate from the District of Columbia. Gives behind-the- scenes account of the planning of the 1972 National Black Political Convention--identifying poet-activist Imamu Baraka, Congressman Charles Diggs (D-MI), Gary, Indiana, mayor Richard Hatcher, and Delegate Fauntroy as key figures--and discusses the conventions objectives and results. Discusses his views of racial politics under the Nixon Administration and emphasizes the need for political consciousness raising among Blacks.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: March 1, 1973
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Fred D. (n.d.)    RJB 494
Director, Negro Action Group, New York. Discusses experiences with Afro-American Association, Oakland, California, analyzing the formative influences of the Association on many projects that have been instituted by past members. Also discusses other organizations of minority groups as well as Negro Action Group.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, Harold (n.d.)    RJB 672
Professor of history, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Traces the evolution of radical student activism at Howard University from the period of the formation of NAG (Nonviolent Action Group), an early Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) affiliate, whose membership included students Stokely Carmichael, Ed Brown, and Courtland Cox. Discusses the controversy surrounding Howard professor Nathan Hare's role in the student and faculty unrest of the 60s, especially Hare's call for a "Black University" and his alliances with the mostly white faculty forum. Compares the leadership styles of Howard presidents Mordecai Johnson, James Nabrit, and James Cheek, and the intensifying challenges they faced from faculty, administrators, and students from the 1940s to the 1960s.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: January 25, 1971
Format: Transcript, 58 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LEWIS, John (1940- )    RJB 30
Third chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls student sit-ins in Nashville, Tennessee in early 1960's. discusses founding of SNCC and its activities, including Freedom Rides and demonstration in Selma, Alabama. Recalls his role in the March on Washington and his association with Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 22, 1967
Format: Transcript, 175 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with the permission of the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LEWIS, Rufus A. (n.d.)    RJB 137
Board member and former chairman, Transportation Committee, Montgomery Improvement Association. Relates activities of his committee during bus boycott. Recalls how Martin Luther King became the movement's leader. Discusses voter registration activities in 1940's and role of Alabama Democratic Conference.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: January 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from, and cited by persons engaged in serious research. No reproduction of this record, either in whole or in part, may be made by microphoto, typewriter, photostat, or any other device, except with the permission of the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

LINCOLN, C. Eric (n.d.)    RJB 315
Professor of sociology, Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author. Discusses his education and academic training. Comments on the role and need of Black colleges and Black scholars. Discusses culture of Black Muslims, "soul," and the white university's responsibility to its Black students. Discusses briefly some of his writings.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 11 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LLORENS, David (1939-deceased, n.d.)    RJB 157
Assistant editor, Ebony. Former civil rights worker in Mississippi. Evaluates the effect of civil rights workers on Black and white Mississippians. Discusses role of the Black writer in the civil rights struggle.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOGAN, Rayford W. (1897-1982)    RJB 1
Historian and author. Relates experiences as Negro in segregated Army, World War I. Discusses W. E. B. Dubois' Pan African Congress in 1921. Gives eyewitness account of the origin of the Burke- Wadsworth Act and Executive Order 8802.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: June 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LONDA, Jeweldean (1926- )    RJB 295
Associate director, Health and Welfare, National Urban League. Reflects on her long-standing involvement with efforts to improve interracial and interdenominational relations, which led her to travel in India, a career in social work, and service as a YWCA staffer--all of which she discusses in her interview. Discusses her role as a white female professional in an organization (the Urban League) predominated by Black male professionals. Explains her frustration and disillusionment with the dream of an interracial society. Analyzes the potential of the student movement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 50, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOOBY, Alexander Z. (n.d.)    RJB 90
Civil rights attorney, Nashville, Tennessee. Discusses civil rights involvement since 1926 including difficulties of Negro lawyers, 1946 race riots in Columbus, Tennessee. Gives impression of prominent civil rights lawyers. Discusses defense of sit-in demonstrators in early sixties; bombing of his house, the Nashville Plan. Comments on remaining needed civil rights laws, progress in Nashville, legal field for Negroes, his work as a member of the City Council since 1951, possibility of Negroes being appointed as judges in Tennessee, and appointment of Thurgood Marshall to U. S. Supreme Court.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOPEZ, Jose (n.d.)    RJB 134
Relates some of the sociological problems faced by Mexican- Americans in the United States. Discusses some of their civil rights organizations. Compares and contrasts the plight of the Negro with that of the Mexican-American in the United States.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: January 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOWENSTEIN, Allard (1929-1980)    RJB 513
Representative (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Details his involvement as a civil rights organizer in bringing in northern white college students to work with the Freedom Vote elections in Mississippi in 1963. Contrasts the media coverage given to the harassment and beatings of white students by southern police to that of similar and worse treatment inflicted on Blacks. Discusses this unjust treatment and the resentment it generated on the part of Black activists, particularly those in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), and its effect in planning the Freedom Summer project of 1964. Describes the evolution of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party out of the Freedom Vote project.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LOWERY, Joseph (1921- )    RJB 641
Chairman, Board of Directors, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Atlanta, Georgia. Reflects on his early activities with the a voter registration efforts in Alabama as a student and young Methodist minister. Explains how, why, and by whom the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was created; identifies and evaluates key SCLC personnel. Assesses SCLC's first attempt to employ nonviolent tactics in the Montgomery bus boycotts, as well as the theological rationale behind nonviolence in general. Recalls his role and that of others in the Montgomery bus boycotts, especially Martin Luther King, Jr., and Ralph Abernathy. Evaluates SCLC's campaigns against housing and employment discrimination in the North, notably Operation Breadbasket in Chicago in 1965. Cites the conditions that led to SCLC's focus on Birmingham, especially the resistance offered by police chief Bull Connor, and the development of the Birmingham Movement. Contrasts the difficulties Blacks encountered desegregating facilities in Montgomery and Birmingham with the ease of similar progress in Mobile. Gives his impressions of southern governors George Wallace of Alabama and Lester Maddox of Georgia, comparing their styles, significance, tactics, and political ambitions. Discusses the effect of Martin Luther King's death on the direction of SCLC and the civil rights movement, and offers his opinions on the conspiracy theories about King's assassination. Stresses the need for Blacks to become more involved in politics, labor organizing, welfare reform, and the anti-Viet Nam War movement.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 53 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUCAS, Robert (n.d.)    RJB 155
Chairman, Chicago chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Relates changes in CORE philosophy from integration to Black awareness. Discusses Martin Luther King Jr.'s march on Cicero, and the follow-up demonstration there by CORE.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUSTER, Hervy (n.d.)    RJB 428
Chairman, Western regional area, Action Board of Economic Opportunity Council, San Francisco, California. Discusses his activities as a member of the San Francisco branch of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), and grassroots community organizations. Recalls his participation in pickets against discriminating Bay Area hotels, auto dealerships, and the school board; and in efforts to involve poor people in policy making to improve housing, education, employment, and youth services. Shares his opinions on Black Power.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 21, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LUSTER, Orville (1925- )    RJB 463
Executive director, Youth for Service, a community action-training- self-help organization in San Francisco. Discusses founding of his group, its activities, and accomplishments.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 59 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LYNCH, Lincoln (n.d.)    RJB 540
Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Recalls early life in Jamaica and immigration to the U. S. where he worked as supporter of W. E. B. DuBois. Discusses activities with Long Island CORE; contest between George Wiley and Floyd McKissick for position of national director of organization; CORE's trend toward Black relevancy, and its subsequent loss of funds and support from the white community.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

LYNCH, Walter Gordon (1917- )    RJB 352
Director, Coleman Community Center, New York. Community liaison- director, Ocean Hill-Brownsville School demonstration Project. Chronicles his activism and protest against segregation and racism as a student at southern Black colleges in the 1940s, and his gang- mediating activities as a recreational and social worker in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville (OHB) neighborhood of New York City. Provides history of the grassroots movement for community control of the schools in OHB. Details the involvement of Ford Foundation advisors and community-selected coordinators (notably project administrator Rhody McCoy) in helping community residents develop and actuate plans for an experimental demonstration district of effective model urban schools. Explains the organizational structure of the decentralized district. Provides in-depth account of the interpersonal, philosophical, racial, and legal conflicts between the district's governing board, the teachers union, and the central school board; targeting the roles played by United Federation of Teachers' president Albert Shanker and central board superintendent Bernard Donovan. Discusses the OHB parents' reactions to the recurrent teachers' strikes, the court-ordered closings of the district schools, and the arrests of district administrators who fought to keep the schools open.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 107 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard


LYNN, Conrad (n.d.)    RJB 493
Attorney. Discusses the suspension of Robert Williams from the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and circumstances causing his flight from the United States. Recalls the formation of the Freedom Now Party and some of its accomplishments. Discusses the aid given Malcolm X by the Socialist Workers Party. Looks at the Black Panthers and their Communist support. Cites his role in several outstanding law cases.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Tape length:
Restrictions: Standard


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MACK, John (1936- )    RJB 416
Special assistant to the director, National Urban League Field Office, Washington, D. C. Former director, Urban League, Flint, Michigan. Director-designate, Urban League, Los Angeles, California. Recalls segregated childhood in Darlington, South Carolina; college years at North Carolina A&T College, Greensboro, North Carolina, and Atlanta University in 1958 when he helped to organize the Student Committee on Human Rights; arrests under Georgia state law; work with Martin Luther King Jr.; split between "establishment Black " and youth in Atlanta and other facets of Atlanta Student Movement. Discusses testimony before subcommittee on civil rights of the Democratic party platform committee in 1960.   Comments on youth-minority-liberal faction of Democratic party in California.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: July 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



MADDOX, Lester G. (n.d.)    RJB 638
Governor of Georgia. States reasons for his vehement resistance to civil rights legislation and court-ordered desegregation. Defends state's record of equal opportunity hiring under his governorship. Discusses his negative national media image. Extols private enterprise initiatives as alternatives to federal antipoverty and welfare programs.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 16, 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MAIER, Henry (n.d.)    RJB 302
Mayor, Milwaukee, Wisconsin at the time of the Milwaukee race riots. Discusses his record of achievement, relations with the
Black community and various civil rights groups. Defends tactics used to end Milwaukee riot.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 14, 1968
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 2 hours, 15 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

MAJOR, Reginald (1926- )    RJB 464
Former chairman, Education Committee, San Francisco Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).  Director, Educational Opportunity Program, San Francisco State College. Traces his involvement with school issues and politics in the Bay area. Identifies dissident factions in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), the organizational split between socioeconomic classes, and the rising militancy of some of its younger members who wanted the organization to pursue more direct, grassroots activism. Explains why dissidents eventually left to form a more militant umbrella organization called the United Freedom Movement. Discusses his later role in academia working to improve Black student enrollment at San Francisco State College and make the curriculum more relevant and sensitive to diverse cultural groups.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 78 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MALLORY, MAE (n.d.)    RJB 523
Civil rights activist. Recalls major events in her life, beginning with her childhood in the South, problems as a student in New York public schools because of prejudice, activities to reform the school system, Communist Party membership, association with Robert Williams as a member of his Crusader Family in Monroe, North Carolina.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 27. 1970
Format: Transcript, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MANGRUM, Fred (n.d.)    RJB 471
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi. Director, Friends of Children of
Mississippi. Describes the activities of Nonviolent Action Group (NAG) at Howard University, staging rent strikes and sit-ins and participating in the Freedom Summer of 1964, the latter of which led him to Tallahatchie County, Mississippi, and work with Black voter registration and political education programs. Debates the pros and cons of white students' involvement in the Freedom Summer project. Discusses SNCC's efforts in the rural South, citing them as poorly organized and lacking depth of structure. Gives his impressions of SNCC leaders Stokely Carmichael and Bob Moses.   Explains the factors leading to the demise of the grassroots Child Development Group of Mississippi and the evolution of its successor, Friends of the Children of Mississippi. Describes changes in the thrust of the government's antipoverty efforts since the Nixon administration. Discusses the Black Studies and cultural nationalism movements, the relevance of Marxism to the Black struggle, and the need for Black unity.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MANNS, Adrienne (n.d.)    RJB 267
Student activist, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses the role of Black intellectuals in the civil rights and Black Power movements, and the philosophical underpinnings of the Black student movement. Identifies several student activists and activist organizations at Howard University during the 60s, notably Tony Gittens, Ewart Brown, and Barbara Penn, and UJAMAA (the United Joint Action Movement of Afro-Americans). Explains the objectives and evaluates the effectiveness of the student takeover of the Howard administration building. Discusses the differences between the white and Black student movements.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: August 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MARKS, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 455
Director, Community Relations Commission, Detroit, Michigan. Explains the purpose and activities of the interracial policy and
advisory committee established by Detroit's mayor in 1944 in response to violent civil unrest in that city, and that of subsequent agencies that evolved in city government to address issues of race relations. Identifies the shortcomings of various local government efforts to address patterns of discrimination in housing and employment and effect social change over a 20-year period. Discusses Martin Luther King's organizing activities in Detroit.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 5, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MARSHALL, Burke (1922- )    RJB 517
Former Assistant Attorney General, Civil Rights Division, U. S. Justice Department. Discusses origin of his division. Recalls
problem of protecting civil rights workers in the South. Discusses his role in the freedom rides, integration of University of
Mississippi, and strategy involved in the passing of the Civil Rights Act 1964.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MARSHALL, Joseph (1947- )    RJB 466
Organizer and first chairman, Black Student Union, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Discusses the racial climate at predominantly white, Catholic USF and articulates the objectives and activities its BSU. Describes the group's cultural and social services outreach programs in the Black community, its efforts to recruit more Black students and establish a Black Studies program, and its relationships with BSUs on other campuses in northern California, with the USF administration, and with mainstream student government organizations. Shares his personal opinions on the direction of the Black student movement, Black Power, Third World coalitions, and the role of Black "Greek" organizations.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 78 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MARTIN, Louis (1913- )    RJB 545
Former deputy chairman and head, Minorities Division, Democratic National Committee. Vice president, Sengstacke Publications.   Recalls his role in the Minorities Division and Kennedy Administration, including soliciting Black votes in the 1960 campaign, Kennedy's telephone call on King's jailing; search for Black talent for high level positions; Kennedy's civil rights programs. Relates origin of Voter Education Project of Southern Regional Council. Looks at Black political power, including Charles Evers, Adam Clayton Powell and the challenge by the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic Convention. Assesses value of Black press.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 25, 1970
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MASON, Phillip (n.d.)    RJB 82
Staff associate, Community Relations Service, Justice Department, Cleveland, Ohio. Looks at life in the ghetto community of Hough.   Recalls conditions and events which precipitated the Cleveland riot. Discusses origin and activities of Dialogue in Black, "a movement to build the Black community."
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 13, 1967
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MAYFIELD, Julian (1928- )    RJB 552
Author, playwright, journalist, and actor. Recalls early life experiences that influenced his career in the arts. Takes issue
with Harold Cruse's The Crisis of the Negro Intellectual.   Discusses his activities in the Communist Party that were geared towards "reforming American society." Recalls civil rights demonstrations in Monroe, N. C. with Robert Williams. Discusses
journalist experiences in Ghana under Nkrumah.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: May 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 75 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MAYS, Benjamin E. (1895-1984)    RJB 128
President emeritus, Morehouse College, Atlanta. Discusses segregation and how he learned to be free within its confines.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MEAD, Margaret (1902-1978)    RJB 484
Anthropologist. Member, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Discusses various theories on race.
Explains how the study of primitive tribes aids in understanding social problems in this country. Looks at segregation and
discrimination, focusing on the reasons for same, treatment of minorities in areas where they are few in number, major differences between racial segregation in North and South in this country.  Explains values and problems of Black studies programs. Discusses student unrest at Hampton Institute and Morehouse College. Comments on American involvement in Vietnam.
Interviewer: Norma Leonard
Date: October 26, 1969
Format: Transcript, 115 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MEANY, George (1894-1980)    RJB 368
President, American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations (AFL-CIO). Articulates his organization's position on discrimination in unions and employment. Discusses elimination of segregated local unions within AFL-CIO structure. Discusses integration of minority group members into skilled trade jobs and unions and the "built-in" unemployment problem in the building trades.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: December 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MENDOZA, Sophie (n.d.)    RJB 322
Discusses the founding of United People Arriba, an independent multi-ethnic group which works to better community conditions in San Jose, California. Articulates problems found in some lower-income neighborhoods; e. g., inferior public educational facilities, poor police-community relations, slums.
Interviewer:
Date:
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MEREDITH, James (1933- )    RJB 57
First known Negro to enroll at University of Mississippi.  Discusses his reasons for so doing, and attitudes of fellow students towards him. Also discusses his "March Against Fear."
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 12, 1967
Format: Format, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

MESHER, Shirley (n.d.)    RJB 388
Civil rights worker and field representative, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), Alabama. One of the organizers, Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA).   Generally details her personal evolution and understandings as a white female civil rights field worker in the rural South, from her entry as an ad hoc press relations coordinator for the SCLC march on Selma, Alabama. Explains why she stayed behind to organize voter registration and self-help projects among poor Blacks in rural Alabama after the march. Focuses on the psychological impact of the marches and demonstrations, but claims such events made few inroads to the economic and political plight of Blacks there.  Details the many sacrifices made and dangers faced by "hardened" civil rights workers, in contrast to federal registrars' efforts, in registering Black voters. Discusses the importance of indigenous community organizations, expressing disillusionment with
federal civil rights and antipoverty policies and programs and denouncing most of them as shortsighted, underfunded "pacification schemes" that countermand and co-opt grassroots efforts.  Discusses the factors that led to the creation of SHAPE (Self-Help Against Poverty Everywhere) and SWAFCA (Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association) in Dallas County, Alabama; and cites the strengths, weaknesses, functions, and visions of the organizations. Talks at length about the transformative impact of the cooperative on the self-esteem and confidence of its Black member-owners, and about agricultural and farm economics issues relevant to the coop's activities. Recalls the two groups' difficulties with resistive local whites and middle-class Blacks and with government antipoverty agency officials, especially SWAFCA's experiences with insensitive Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) auditors, "expert" consultants, and USDA county extension agents.
Converses broadly about the socioeconomic implications of poverty, the special problems and contradictions of the poor in
business, and the relationship between professionals and the poor as well as related issues of health and social welfare affecting
poor rural Blacks.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 352 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

METCALF, Ralph (1910-1978)    RJB 707
Representative (D.-Illinois), U. S. Congress. Discusses reasons for entering politics. Concentrates on Congressional Black Caucus, including its relationship with President Nixon; activities to alleviate problems of Blacks; view on Congressional reform; role in 1972 National Black Political Convention; assessment of presidential candidacy of Representative Shirley Chisholm (D.-New York). Discusses home rule for the District of Columbia. Comments on politics in Chicago.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 7, 1973
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MICHAUX, Louis (Deceased, n.d.)    RJB 628
Proprietor, National Memorial African Bookstore, New York, N. Y., which has the largest selection of books by and about Blacks in the world. Brother of the late Elder Solomon Michaux. Discusses the importance of "Black literature." Gives his philosophy on the relevance of religion to Blacks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 31, 1970
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MILGRAM, Morris (1916- ) RJB 166
Housing developer and builder. President, Planned Communities, Inc., a national firm that builds planned integrated housing.
Manager, Mutual Real Estate Investment Trust, which buys apartment houses in white areas for integrated rental. Discusses activities and obstacles in developing integrated housing communities.   Assesses effects of fair housing laws on his efforts and
enterprises. Recalls activities with A. Philip Randolph to secure a Federal bill banning discrimination in employment.  Includes note on Privately Developed Interracial Housing, by George and Eunice Greer, the story of one of Milgram's housing units.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restriction: Standard

MITCHELL, Clarence, Jr. (1911- )    RJB 351
Director, District of Columbia Bureau of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls a youth forum organized in Baltimore during the 1930's which acted upon socio-economic problems of Blacks. Relates that his wife became first youth secretary of NAACP as result of her forum activities.  Reminisces about the late Mary McLeod Bethune. Discusses his goals as the first labor secretary of the NAACP and strategy used to obtain these goals. Cites some of his experiences as a civil rights lobbyist, including tactics used to win the support of Congressmen on civil rights legislation. Appraises the civil rights records of President Lyndon Johnson. Answers criticisms directed at the NAACP regarding its basic interests and its relationship to the masses. As legislative chairman of the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, discusses its origin, constituents, and achievements.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 6, 1968
Format: Transcript, 123 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MITCHELL, Edwin Harris (n.d.)    RJB 109
Chairman, Metropolitan Nashville Human Relations Commission.   Discusses minority employment in Nashville and the fact that only 63 Blacks work in white collar jobs in "five classifications of business." Relates purpose of Human Relations Commission. Recalls role in easing student-police confrontation in Nashville.
Interviewer:
Date: 1967
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: CLOSED


MITCHELL, Parren (1922- )    RJB 708
Representative (D.-Maryland), U. S. Congress. Member, Banking and Currency Committee. Discusses Congressional Black Caucus, including its accomplishments and relationship to Democratic National Committee. Comments on 1972 National Black Political Convention. Gives purpose and function of Banking and Currency Committee, and it importance to Blacks. Discusses usurpation of Congressional power by President Nixon and the economic policies of his Administration. Recalls his Congressional campaign.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 22, 1973
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MITCHELL, William (deceased n.d.)    RJB 23
Executive secretary, Tuskegee Civic Association. Discusses voter registration activities of his organization and subterfuges devised by whites to discourage Black registrants. Also discusses the Tuskegee gerrymandering case.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: March 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in
any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

MOON, Henry Lee (1901- )    RJB 71
Public Relations Director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Editor, The Crisis. Discusses the duties of his office, including its publications and influence on the Association's official statements. Looks at changes in The Crisis. Examines the communications media's coverage and image of the NAACP and civil rights activities.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 1, 1967
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MOON, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 242
Pastor, Presbyterian University Church, Memphis State University, Memphis, Tennessee. Recalls the Memphis garbage strike, 1968.  Discusses the ensuing boycott and demonstrations, and Martin Luther Kings's role.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MOORE, Cecil (ca. 1908- )    RJB 47
Attorney. President, Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates civil rights activities of NAACP in Philadelphia. Discusses the socio-economic conditions of Blacks in the city and the riot that occurred there in 1964. Also relates efforts to desegregate Girard College, a resident school for white orphans, located in the Black community.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MOORE, Douglas (n.d.)    RJB 343
Minister. Assistant project director of Shaw Urban Renewal area, Washington, D. C. Participated in the founding of Southern
Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Discusses his role and that of Martin Luther King Jr. in the early sit-in movement in North Carolina.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: December 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MOORE, Elmer J. (1918- )    RJB 510
Former economist and human relations specialist, Office of Economic Opportunities. Gives insight into OEO's inner conflicts on goals and methodology. Recalls the termination of Child Development Group in Mississippi (CDMG) project. Discusses SWAFCA's funding difficulties. Relates procedures in OEO funding.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 9, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MORRIS, Richard P. (1926- )    RJB 443
Civil rights activist in Teamsters Union in California. Discusses his activities on the Teamsters Rank and File Committee for Equal Job Opportunity to secure nondiscriminatory hiring in several industries in California.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MORRISON, Derrick (1946- )    RJB 625
Staff writer, The Militant. Member, executive committee, Young Socialist Alliance (YSA). Discusses formation of Michigan Freedom Now Party and its linkage to Malcolm X. Comments on Malcolm X's philosophy.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 3 pages (incomplete); cassette tape made of entire interview.
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: Standard

MORRISROE, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 156
Assistant pastor, Holy Name Cathedral, Chicago, Illinois.  Discusses his civil rights activities in Lowndes County, Alabama in
conjunction with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.  Describes his jailing in Alabama, his release and the subsequent attempt to kill him by shooting him in the back. Explores his feelings as a white survivor of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 21, 1968
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 1 hour, 45 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

MORROW, E. Frederic (ca. 1910- )    RJB 664
Author. Vice president, Bank of America. Member of the White House staff under President Eisenhower. Reflects on his
experiences as the first Black to serve on the executive staff of an American president, as administrative assistant to Eisenhower from 1955 to 1961. Recalls the resentment and resistance his presence created among some officials and describes both his non-race-related duties and his "gatekeeper" role as liaison between Eisenhower and African American leaders. Explains his reasons for not supporting a planned march on Washington in the 1950s.  Discusses Eisenhower's civil rights position, views toward civil rights legislation, responses to the Emmet Till murder and the Little Rock 9, and efforts to desegregate the armed forces. Cites reasons for his eventual disillusionment with Eisenhower and later Nixon. Discusses national-level Democratic and Republican party politics and assesses Black political strengths and weaknesses.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MORSELL, John (1912- )    RJB 72
Assistant executive director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses ideology and
goals of the organization as related to the current civil rights movement. Reviews operational structure of the Association, from
the branch level to the national board. Summarizes some of its local and national activities.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 1, 1967
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MORTON, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 696
Member, Board of Education, Detroit, Michigan. Describes his personal relationship with Martin Luther King Jr., dating back to their Morehouse years. Discusses his later experiences as an activist professor of theology and social philosophy at Black
colleges in the South, especially that of creating at Dillard University an interracial, multi-university forum on social and
racial issues in New Orleans. Explains his reasons for leaving the South and accepting a Baptist pastorship in Detroit. Provides
account of the efforts of a group of Black Methodist ministers from Detroit to integrate a white Methodist church in Jackson,
Mississippi. Describes his activities and achievements as a member of the Michigan State Board of Education.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 9, 1970
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MOYER, William H. (1933- ) RJB 228
Associate director, Poor People's Campaign, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Explains his duties with respect to planning the Poor People's Campaign and Resurrection City and developing "non-poor" support groups among suburbanites in the Washington, D.C. area. Describes the SCLC planning committees' lines of authority, the duties of the various subcommittees, and the ensuing conflicts and power struggles that occurred in mounting the campaign both before and after the first caravan of buses arrived. Comments on the differences in leadership style between Martin Luther King Jr. and Ralph David Abernathy.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MULLOY, Joseph T. (n.d.)    RJB 681
Field organizer, Southern Conference Educational Fund (SCEF) New Orleans, Louisiana. Details the activities of Office of Economic Opportunity-funded, Community Action Program (CAP) organizations in the Appalachians in the mid-1960s, especially the personnel and interpersonal challenges of workers there. Describes abuses in the antipoverty job training programs in Appalachia. Recalls the "coup" staged by himself and other young members of the Appalachian Volunteers CAP who broke away from that organization, taking the Office of Economic Opportunity funding with them, to form a new group that engaged the populace in more meaningful direct action in local political and economic arenas. Discusses the linking of
their struggle to that of social activist and civil rights groups such as Miles Horton's Highlander School, SCEF, and the Student
Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC).
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 85 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MURPHY, Alvin (n.d.)    RJB 154
Catholic Interracial Council worker with Mexican-Americans, San Jose, California. Discusses plight of Mexican-Americans, blaming much of their situation on their patron-peon relationship to religion and whites. Compares Black movement to Mexican-American "lack of movement."
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: February 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MURRAY, Pauli (1910-1985)    RJB 290
Lawyer, professor, author. Discusses her book on the Black family, Proud Shoes. Recalls in depth her activities with other Howard University students in breaking segregation barriers in Washington, D. C. during the 1940's. Discusses various civil rights law cases.  Gives views on Black Power, integration, and the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15 and 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 142 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MURWAY, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 601
Press secretary to Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses civil rights legislation and programs, including an equal
employment opportunity ordinance, under the Stokes administration; relationship of city council to mayor's programs; anti-Stokes factions; General Benjamin Davis as safety director of Cleveland.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 13 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MUSE, Andrew (n.d.)    RJB 546
Director, Division of Conciliation, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Washington, D. C. Discusses function of his division, "which receives and investigates charges of discrimination in employment based on race, sex, religion and national origin."  Relates problems in minority group hiring.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MYERS, Mattie J. (n.d.)    RJB 606
Director, Ralph J. Bunche Community Council, Detroit, Michigan.  Concentrates on the major achievement of her organization: building of more than 35,000 housing units, primarily for residents of an urban renewal area in Detroit. Discusses how the Council developed from a neighborhood club designed to preserve and protect its environs from urban renewal. Recalls financing and building of housing units.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: August 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

MYERS, Sherry (ca. 1943- )    RJB 379
Describes poor whites as the largest oppressed minority group in America, citing some of their problems as political, economic, and social discrimination. Discusses a coalition of poor whites based on class consciousness with the goal of defeating the "oppressive system." Discusses the activities of the Nashville Committee for Decent Housing, which investigated slum housing perpetuated by the local city housing authority.
Interviewer:
Date:
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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McCLAIN, Curtis (n.d.)    RJB 460
President, Warehousemen's Union, Local 6. Chairman, Human Rights Commission, San Francisco, California. Traces his involvement in ILWU labor politics in the Bay area. Focuses on union's alliances with civil rights groups in the Cadillac Row, Palace Hotel, and Lucky Grocery Stores demonstrations and boycotts during the 60s; and its later alliance with Black student unions, radical white student groups, and Third World coalitions around evolving social causes. Outlines the union's legislative/political strategies and activities. Gives details of his role and objectives as president of the San Francisco Human Rights Commission. Comments on the future of the civil rights movement, white backlash, welfare, employment programs, and the Viet Nam War.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McCOY, Rhody (n.d.)    RJB 360
Unit administrator, Ocean Hill-Brownsville School Demonstration Project. Offers a comprehensive critique of the educational power structure in New York City. Examines the bureaucratic difficulties and racism faced by Black teachers and administrators. Exposes the central board's and the teachers union's duplicity in dealing with Black students, parents, and communities; and their collaboration to defeat the Ocean Hill-Brownsville (OHB) community-controlled school district project. Explains the selection process that resulted in his leadership of the OHB governing board. Cites examples of the dedication of community parents to the project and of the sacrifices many poor urban parents made for their children's education, despite the turmoil that plagued the district's implementation and eventual termination. Places the OHB struggle in the context of the larger struggle by Blacks and other minorities against racial, economic, and political exploitation and domination. Interview concludes with interviewer reading into the record a local OHB community newspaper article tracing the history of the OHB struggle. The article claims that the efforts of the central board and the United Federation of Teachers to undermine community control of the schools led to the chaos, not the experiment itself.  It overwhelmingly supports the parents' initiatives and McCoy's contribution to the project.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 96 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McCREE, Floyd J. (n.d.)    RJB 453
Former mayor, Flint, Michigan. Recalls discrimination against Blacks at the Chevrolet and Buick plants in early 40's, which
resulted in his active involvement in civil rights. Traces involvement in politics. Discusses Flint, Michigan, under his administration.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: September 2, 1969
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McDANIEL, Vernon (n.d.)    RJB 213
Relates his role as education specialist helping Black community leaders develop techniques and strategies for the implementation of school desegregation. Also discusses professional educators in the South.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: June 10 1968
Format: Transcript, 58 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

McDEW, Charles F. (1938- ) RJB 40
Second chairman, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 1961-63. Recalls protest demonstrations in Orangeburg, South Carolina. Discusses SNCC; its founding, projects, and internal problems.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 24, 1967
Format: Transcript, 140 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McDONALD, Jimmy (ca. 1935- )    RJB 501
Former national director of fund raising, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Currently associated with "Black Journal." Describes his first encounters with social protest philosophy as a youth in the 50s. Explains how and why he interrupted his career as an entertainer and became involved as a volunteer at CORE's New York City office, working with its then predominantly white leadership (Marvin Rich, Jim Robinson, and Gordon Curry), and later with James Farmer, George Wiley, and Floyd McKissick. Compares the strengths and weaknesses of the two factions and shares his opinions on the reasons for the latter group's movement away from nonviolence and toward the more militant, Black Power concept. Details logistical aspects of planning and executing the Freedom Rides and the purpose behind them. Discusses his own commitment to nonviolence as well as that of other civil rights workers, as it was tested and defeated by the several incidents of southern racist violence that he describes.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 5, 1969
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McGHEE, Silas (n.d.)    RJB 447
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi. Discusses Mississippi Summer Project; demise of Greenwood Movement; importance of SNCC in Mississippi; original goal of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic party (MFDP) and its present lack of programs. Recalls the burning of his home because of his family's civil rights activities.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McGILL, Elzie (1903- )    RJB 280
One of the founders of the Lowndes County (Alabama) Co-op, Inc.  Leader of the Lowndes County Freedom Movement. Describes the intimidation tactics used by whites to keep Blacks from registering to vote in Loundes County even after the passage of the Voting Rights Bill of 1965. Chronicles organizational tactics which Blacks used to get assistance from the Justice Department.   Discusses role of federal registrars and interracial Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) workers. Praises SNCC's involvement in the county, especially its efforts to help start a Black farmers' coop (the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association) and its role in politically organizing Blacks.  Reflects on the impact of the civil rights movement on race relations in the state; draws parallels between the Black civil rights and biblical struggles of oppressed peoples.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McGILL, (Mrs.) Elzie (1927- )    RJB 281
One of the first Blacks since Reconstruction to register to vote in Lowndes County, Alabama.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 5 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McGILL, Lillian S. (n.d.)    RJB 199
Field director, Tuskegee Institute Community Education Project (TICEP). Board member, Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA). Traces origin of Lowndes County Christian Movement for Human Rights and Cooperative and its voter registration program. Discusses programs of Christian Movement, including home building, property development, job training.  Recalls activities of TICEP and purpose of SWAFCA.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during her lifetime.

McKINNEY, Prentice (n.d.), joint with    RJB 146
BENNING, Dwight
Two members of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Youth Council-Commandos discuss civil rights activities of their group in Milwaukee.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral authors without their written permission. Upon the death of both, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral authors, their heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

McKISSICK, Floyd (1922- ) RJB 323
Former national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).  Veteran civil rights lawyer. Discusses his childhood precociousness and early encounters with racism as a boy and as the first Black student at the University of North Carolina. Recalls his later exposure in the 1940s to radical politics (the Henry Wallace campaign) and introduction to CORE. Gives account of some of the first Freedom Rides, mentioning the roles played by George Houser, Jim Peck, Bayard Rustin, and others; describes his relationships with CORE leadership. Details and defends the divergent positions CORE adopted under his directorship. Discusses his post-CORE activities, notably: building McKissick Enterprises and a Black corporate network, working on a book, involvement with a presidential candidate "screening" organization (the National Committee of Inquiry), and travel to Cambodia.  Articulates his ideological perspectives: his rejection of nonviolence and Black elitism, his six-point philosophy of Black Power, and his views on Black capitalism and Black economic independence. Admonishes Blacks to emphasize their ethnic rather than racial distinctions, and advocates redefining the social contract between Blacks and whites. Discusses class divisions in the Black community and analyzes trends in Black leadership from the 1700s through the 1960s.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McKNIGHT, C. A. (n.d.)   RJB 408
Editor, the Charlotte Observer, Charlotte, North Carolina. Member Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Discusses race relations in Charlotte and the editorial policy of the Observer.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date:
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

McMILLIAN, Ernest (1945- )    RJB 181
Chairman, Dallas chapter, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Recalls voter registration experiences in South in early 1960's. Discusses his chapter's current programs relating to recruitment on college campuses, establishing an umbrella organization of all Black civil rights groups in Dallas, and Black pride - Black nationalist activities.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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NABRIT, James M., Jr. (1900- )    RJB 185
President, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Relates incidents of racial discrimination which he witnessed as a youth that led him to choose law as a profession. Recalls his initiation of civil rights law courses at Howard's Law School. Discusses civil rights cases in which he was involved. Comments on student demands and unrest at Howard.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

NEAL, Gaston (n.d.)    RJB 232
Co-founder and director, New School for Afro-American Thought, described as the first school of its kind in the country. Defines the goal of the school. Discusses its origin, operation, courses, and future plans.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

NIXON, E. D. (1899-1987)    RJB 139
Former treasurer, Montgomery (Alabama) Improvement Association.  Reviews origin of Association, initiation of Montgomery bus boycott, and how Martin Luther King Jr. became the movement's leader. Assesses accomplishments of Association. Discusses how with the aid of Mrs. Eleanor Roosevelt, he was able to get a U. S. O. club in Montgomery.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 1968
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the  repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

NIXON, John (n.d.)    RJB 173
Vice-President, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Former president, Alabama chapter, NAACP. Relates efforts of his chapter to obtain employment equality for Blacks in Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the  repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

NOLAN, David (n.d.), joint with    RJB 378
WELSH, Mike
Members, Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC). Trace the evolution of SSOC and white student involvement in the civil rights movement in general. Discuss the group's relationship with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), other Black civil rights groups, and white student groups such as SDS (Students for a Democratic Society). Explain SSOC's objectives and programs and provide details of its day-to-day operations, sources of support, membership, personnel, and publications. Relate incidents of harassment by local authorities of group members for their activities.
Interviewer:
Date:
Format: Transcript, 68, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

NORFORD, Thomasina J. (n.d.)    RJB 291
Lobbyist, Capitol Hill, Washington, D. C. Active in desegregating the WAVES and the D. C. unit, U. S. Employment Service. Gives account of her entry into and long-time involvement with the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority's lobbying project, advocating the interests of Black people on Capitol Hill during the 1940s. Talks of her lobbying efforts for antidiscrimination amendments and against Jim Crow laws banning Black women from the female branches of the armed forces and Blacks in general from public health care and educational facilities and jobs. Explains her operating approaches and action strategies, including her tactic of getting Black professionals to provide expert testimony on bills pending before Congress. Discusses her role as head of Black Women Democrats for FDR during his reelection campaign, and her later position as chief of the minority groups section in the Department of Labor (the highest ranking Black woman in federal government at that time).  Gives history of the sit-in/picketing movement among Howard University students, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) youth groups, and the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) in Washington, DC, during the 1940s. Shares her opinions on the contemporary student movement, on urban conflicts, and on Black Power.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 108, 134 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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O'BOYLE, Patrick Cardinal (1896-1987)    RJB 66
Archbishop of Washington. Speaks of his efforts through the Catholic Church to foster a "more integrated understanding" society in Washington, D. C. community. Also discusses desegregation of church schools and parishes in the area, some prior to 1954.  Briefly comments on role in the 1963 March on Washington.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 30, 1967
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

OFFENBURGER, Thomas Edward (n.d.)    RJB 227
Director, Department of Information, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses the Poor People's Campaign; its origin, strategic plans, problems, and its implementation. Reviews Resurrection City, and his association with Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

OLIVER, William H. R. (n.d.)    RJB 511
Co-director, Fair Practices and Anti-Discrimination Department, United Auto Workers (UAW). Chronicles his own career (culminating in his rise to the International Executive Board) and the history of interracial relations in the United Auto Workers union (UAW).  Compares FDR-era fair employment practices legislation with the UAW's own initiatives. Details the union's antidiscrimination efforts from the World War II period to the 1960s, commenting on: the close relationship between the UAW and civil rights organizations; the UAW's standing with the Black Detroit community during the 1943 riots there; and UAW president Walter Reuther's personal commitment to and subsequent involvement of the union in civil rights causes within the union and society at large, especially Reuther's role in the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Highlights his own and other union leaders' 1960s lobbying activities in support of civil rights legislation, particularly noting Reuther's role in halting a filibuster staged by Dixiecrat congressmen that was blocking the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Bill. Discusses ongoing UAW affirmative action efforts and its training and apprenticeship programs for Blacks and other minority workers. Claims the modern civil rights movement's "We Shall Overcome" theme song (popularized before "Bloody Sunday" in Selma) was adapted from a traditional union song.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: February 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 108 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

OLIVEROS, Pete (1934- )   RJB 321
Director, San Hidalgo Institute, San Jose, California. Describes the activities and programs of the Institute, its objectives and philosophy, enrollment, and achievements in the area of vocational skills training with Manpower Development Training Act funding.  Comments on his longstanding personal efforts to help Mexican American immigrants make more successful transitions to life in the U.S., and articulates problems unique to the Mexican American community.
Interviewer: Sy Berg
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 6 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

O'NEAL, John (1940- )    RJB 12
President, Free Southern Theater. Discusses origin and development of this organization, created by him and others involved in civil rights activities in the South.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

ORANGE, James (n.d.)    RJB 262
Coordinator, Eastern contingent, Poor People's Campaign. Sheriff, Resurrection City. Discusses his role as a Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) troubleshooter and fundraiser, conducting nonviolence workshops in preparation for the 1968 March on Washington and organizing bus caravans of participants from various areas; and later as sheriff and head of the "Peace Brothers" marshall force maintaining order at Resurrection City.  Describes the conditions at the encampment and compares SCLC leaders Jesse Jackson's and Hosea Williams's crowd-handling styles.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

OTEY, Inman (n.d.)    RJB 92
Business and civic leader, Nashville, Tennessee. Gives eyewitness account of 1967 Nashville riot. Tells how his efforts to quell the disturbance caused him to be beaten and arrested. Examines race relations in Nashville.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 30, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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PACHT, Newton (n.d.)    RJB 210
Law professor, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses student unrest at Howard, including the demands of students and administrators.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PAGE,  Marion (n.d.)    RJB 391
Former temporary executive secretary, Albany (Georgia) Movement.   Recalls the origin of the movement and its leaders. Discusses harassment of participants, absence of Black middle-class support, lack of positive Federal intervention and roles of SNCC and SCLC.  Cites accomplishments of movement.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PARKER, J. Allen (n.d.)    RJB 102
White city councilman, Tuskegee, Alabama. Discusses school desegregation, the Tuskegee gerrymandering case of Gomillion v. Lightfoot, and race relations in his city.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: December 1967
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PARKS, Rosa (1913- )   RJB 49
Triggered the year-long Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott, by her refusal to relinquish her seat on a bus to a white male, upon request of the bus driver. Discusses circumstances surrounding her arrest, the protest, and Martin Luther King Jr.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

PARRIS, Guichard (n.d.)   RJB 69
Staff member, national office, National Urban League. Discusses work of the organization, from its inception as an employment broker for Negroes, to its present status as a professional social service organization. Discusses also the contributions to the League of three of its executive directors.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PASCHALL, Eliza (1917- )    RJB 189
Discusses her association with various civil rights groups in Atlanta, especially the Metropolitan Atlanta Summit Leadership Congress, and its role in the Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PATOLL, Dale (n.d.)    RJB 591
President, Peace Action Committee, Harvard University. Discusses goals of the organization. Comments on the student strike at Harvard, especially the lack of participation by Blacks; sincerity of demonstrators; administration's reaction to student participants.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PATTERSON, Eugene (n.d.)    RJB 123
Editor of The Atlanta Constitution. Discusses Southern white racial attitudes and the editorial policy of his paper on civil rights.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PATTERSON, William L. (Deceased, n.d.)     RJB 521
Attorney. Former head Civil Rights Congress. Co-chairman, Black Liberation Commission, American Communist Party (ACP). Recalls conditions of social injustice and racism in the 1920s and their effect on his decision to become involved in radical social causes, pursue a law degree, travel internationally, and join the American Communist Party (ACP). Discusses the ACP's efforts, achievements, and shortcomings in reaching Black Americans and its overall commitment to linking the Black American struggle to that of other oppressed people worldwide. Explains the Party's link with the Soviet communist party. Recalls Party positions on World War II international political issues; shares his own opinions on Hitler, Stalin, FDR, and Truman.  Discusses his duties as Secretary of the Party's International Labor Defense Organization in the 20s and 30s. Details the ILD's defense of the Scottsboro Nine (after the National Association for Colored People withdrew from the case), its role in the Angelo Herndon case, and its efforts (and those of Paul Robeson) to place before the United Nations General Assembly a "We Charge Genocide" petition regarding the treatment of Blacks in America. Describes the origins and objectives of the ACP-sponsored Civil Rights Congress, noting its relationship to A. Philip Randolph's National Negro Council. Discusses his McCarthy-era convictions and jail sentences. Comments on the future of the ACP, Black nationalism, the Black Panthers, and the contemporary struggles of the Third World against imperialism.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 35, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PATTON, W. C. (n.d.)     RJB 406
Founding member, Alabama State Coordinating Association for Registration and Voting, an organization to give guidance to Negro voters. Associate director for political action, NAACP.  Articulates function of his department of NAACP--that of developing voter registration campaigns throughout the country. Discusses strategy of staging these campaigns in various cities.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PAWLEY, James (n.d.)    RJB 68
Executive director, Urban League, Essex County, New Jersey. Looks at the League's program in his area. Discusses the underemployment and economic conditions of Blacks in Newark. Examines the attitude of Mayor Addonizio's administration towards nonwhites in Newark.  Discusses aftermath of the city's riot in 1967.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PAYNE, Nathan (n.d.)    RJB 479
Founder and president, Orriville, Alabama Co-op, Dallas County, Alabama. Recalls his determination to assert his voting rights and his first attempts to do so. Credits the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee's Bernard Lafayette with providing critical voter education support and guidance to Blacks in the county.  Describes the tests used to discourage and prevent Blacks from registering, explains how the 1965 Voting Rights Act changed these practices, and appraises the effects of Black enfranchisement on social and political relations in Alabama. Gives history of Dallas County Independent Voters League and Black political organizing and campaigning for local office after 1965. Discusses the Co-op's origins and early ventures; its role in facilitating voter registration; and its relationship with SNCC and other civil rights groups and with the 10-county umbrella cooperative organization, the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA).
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 16, 1969
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PEABODY, Malcolm E., Jr. (1928- )    RJB 62
Director, Interfaith Housing Corporation, Boston, Massachusetts.  Relates efforts of his organization towards building suitable inner-city and suburban housing for the poor. Discusses problems encountered in creating low-income housing. Reviews existing Federal and state housing programs. Discusses defeat of his brother, former Governor Endicott Peabody.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: October 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death, MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

PECK, James (n.d.)    RJB 537
Early "Freedom Rider." Former editor, Correlator, magazine of Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discusses his own commitment to nonviolence philosophy and pacifism and shares his experiences (especially the details of his injuries) as one of the original Freedom Riders and editor of The Correlator, CORE's newsletter, from 1949 to 1965. Discusses the reasons for CORE's initial embrace of nonviolence theory and practice in the 1940s until 1965.  Describes the Freedom Rides of 1947 and 1961, and details CORE activities since the Freedom Rides. Comments on the Poor People's Campaign March on Washington and on other antidiscrimination protest activities in New York City. Assesses the effectiveness of nonviolent direct action to end segregation.  Describes the circumstances behind CORE's transition from a white- to a Black-controlled organization; how whites were universally expelled and he himself was dismissed from his editorship. Reflects on the organization's later denunciation of nonviolence and adoption of a Black nationalist credo. Assesses CORE's leadership over the years--notably that of Bayard Rustin, George Houser, Lula Farmer, and Jim Robinson--and contrasts Black, post-1965 CORE president James Farmer's strengths and weaknesses with those of white pre-1965 president Marvin Rich.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: February 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PEMBERTON, John, Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 293
Executive director, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), New York. Discusses the history and scope of the ACLU and some of its landmark cases. Focuses on ACLU involvement in civil rights issues, particularly its Operation Southern Justice project, which utilized native southern lawyers and was aimed at making southern jury selection and courtroom practices more equitable; and its Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee, launched in collaboration with civil rights groups, that monitored police malpractice against Blacks in the urban North and West. Recounts the ACLU's activities in support of the Poor People's Campaign and the 1968 March on Washington. Considers the future of the civil rights movement and American race relations.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PEPPER, Claude (1900-1989)    RJB 411
Representative (D.-Florida), U. S. Congress. While repeatedly heralding his southern ancestry and his allegiance to the South,
Pepper recounts his maverick record of voting nearly 100% in support for civil rights legislation during his lengthy tenure in Congress. Also credits himself for getting the Civil Rights Act of 1964 out of the Senate Rules Committee so that it could be voted on. Discusses the filibustering tactic employed by southern senators to block civil rights legislation. Focuses also on his record of achievement in passing health, Medicare/Medicaid, veterans, and education legislation.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: April 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PETERS, Joseph (1938- )    RJB 265
Sports benefit coordinator for the Poor People's Campaign.  Discusses his project in which well-known athletes donated their
services in fund raising sports events for SCLC and the Poor People's Campaign.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PETERSON, James E. (1946- )    RJB 224
Administrative assistant to deputy national coordinator, Poor People's Campaign. Discusses the establishing of the Washington
headquarters for the campaign including the organization of finances, committees, volunteers; daily routines; and relations
with the Atlanta office. Gives his impressions of Resurrection City.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 3, 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PHILLIPS, Channing (1928-1987)   RJB 7
Founding member of Coalition of Conscience, a conglomerate of local organizations working to alleviate social problems of Washington, D. C. Also, director, Housing Development Corporation, an association that seeks housing for low-income people.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 13, 1967
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

PHILLIPS, P. B. (n.d.)    RJB 198
Dean of Student Affairs, Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Alabama.  Comments on student demands and campus dissent, suggesting some solutions to the problems. Recalls origin, development, services, and accomplishments of Tuskegee Institute Alabama Self-Help Association (TICEP). Traces origin of Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA) from TICEP. Recalls his years with Urban League in New York. Discusses some of its activities in areas of education, medical/social needs, and fair labor practices.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: May 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

PHILLIPS, Vel (Mrs.) (1924- )    RJB 147
Attorney. Alderman, Milwaukee Common Council. Reviews her campaign and election to the city council. Discusses some of her activities as a Democratic national committeewoman. Recalls her friendship with John F. Kennedy. Discusses her efforts to get a fair housing ordinance in Milwaukee. Her association with Father James Groppi, and his marches and demonstrations in support of fair housing.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: February 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 169 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PIGEE, Vera (n.d.)    RJB 488
Secretary, Clarkesdale (Mississippi) Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Describes personal encounters with racist violence, discrimination, and injustice that led her to commit herself to the NAACP's civil rights activities in Mississippi. Discusses her work in voter registration and as an advisor/organizer of NAACP youth councils. Assesses the characters and achievements of Mississippi activists Medgar Evers, Bob Moses, and Aaron Henry. Recalls the creation of COFO (the Conference of Federated Organizations), its objectives, her role, and that of others in organizing the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party.  Evaluates the Kennedy administration's civil rights record and
comments on the future of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PINCKNEY, Arnold (n.d.)    RJB 594
Administrative assistant to Mayor Carl Stokes, Cleveland, Ohio.  Discusses the administration's programs for minority groups,
including the equal employment opportunity ordinance, Mayor's Youth Council, and housing proposals. Comments on discord between Mayor Stokes and General Davis on the right to dissent.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PITTMAN, John (1906- )    RJB 663
Co-editor, Daily World, New York. Veteran civil rights activist.  Discusses his 1930s activities in the newspaper business, his
disillusionment with both the "Hoover Democrats" and Republican party politics, and eventual commitment to the socialist/communist/labor movement, crusading against de facto segregation and social injustice. Recalls his work with novelist Upton Sinclair's presidential campaign, the Angelo Herndon case, the American Communist Party's Council on African Affairs, and W. E. B. DuBois. Cites reasons for the dissolution of the American Communist Party in the South after World War II, and discusses international communist politics as well as the Party's position on Black nationalism and struggle in America. Comments on the Black Panthers' activities in the San Francisco Bay Area and the possibilities of armed revolution in the U.S.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PITTMAN, Tarea Hall (n.d.)    RJB 526
Retired secretary, Western region, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Gives her views on Black separatism and a segregated Black culture. Recalls aid given by NAACP to Japanese-Americans in California who were placed in relocation centers during World War II.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: March 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PIXLEY, John (n.d.)    RJB 648
Regional director, Welfare Planning Council, Los Angeles. Traces his involvement in "community organization," including the
establishing of U. S. O.'s in Europe. Gives origin of Welfare Planning Council, funding, functions, organizational structure, and
its relationship to other welfare agencies.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 29, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

POHLHAUS, J. Francis (ca. 1919- )    RJB 358
Attorney. Counsel, Washington Bureau, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), Washington, D. C. Recalls how his early involvement with labor law issues led him to civil rights law and a position with the civil rights section of the Justice Department in the 1950s. Describes the types of cases his unit investigated and litigated. Describes also his later work as an NAACP lawyer focusing on government and legislative issues.  Points out the contributions of the NAACP's Clarence Mitchell and Leadership Conference on Civil Rights head Joseph Rauh in drafting and lobbying for civil rights legislation and monitoring enforcement of civil rights laws. Assesses the NAACP's evolving public image, its tactical approaches, and future directions.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 55, 62 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

POPE, James (n.d.)    RJB 693
Leader, Black Student Association, Memphis State University, Memphis, Tennessee.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 4, 1970
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

POPHAM, John N. (n.d.)    RJB 259
Managing editor, Chattanooga Times, Chattanooga, Tennessee.  Recalls issues of race relations and notable Black and white
religious, political, and business leaders with whom he came into contact during his newspaper career, especially during the Truman era, as a reporter covering developments in the South. Reflects on southern whites' dualistic relationships with Blacks and on southern politicians' peculiar uses of language to stymie Black progress. Traces Black political progress, comparing the civil rights struggle to that of the Irish insurgents in Europe and commenting on old and new Black leadership and approaches, the role of the Black church in civil rights efforts, and the white- controlled media's disparate coverage of news involving Blacks generally and civil rights activities in particular.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 102 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PRYOR, Downing (1918- )    RJB 252
Chairman, Memphis (Tennessee) City Council. Looks at the Memphis garbage strike; why it occurred when it did; its prolongation which he attributes to Black leadership conflict; marches and boycotts.  Discusses Martin Luther King Jr. Also discusses local police and the volunteer police reserve force.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PURYEAR, Mahlon (n.d.)    RJB 67
Deputy executive director, National Urban League. Traces his career with the League. Discusses the financial source of the
parent body and its chapters. Looks at the relationship of the affiliates to the national office. Discusses changes in the League's philosophy.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 2, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

PURYEAR, Paul (n.d.)    RJB 172
Chair, department of political science, Fisk University. Discusses Non-Partisan Voters League, a small political movement to achieve better social and economic conditions for Blacks in Tuskegee, Alabama. Recalls victories of Negro Community in the Interstate 40 controversy in Nashville, Tennessee. Discusses role of Fisk and its students in the Black community and civil rights groups in the area.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: March 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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QUARLES, Benjamin (1904- )    RJB 715
Historian. Member, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project. Traces interest in Black history from undergraduate years at Shaw University. Discusses interest in Frederick Douglass which culminated in a biography. Comments on Black history and Black studies as intellectual disciplines. Suggests further areas of exploration in the field. Discusses future direction of civil rights. Looks at role of Black colleges and universities.  Discusses role with Civil Rights Documentation Project.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1973
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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RABINOWITZ, Victor (n.d.)    RJB 515
Attorney. President, National Lawyers Guild. Gives history of Guild. Discusses civil rights activities in the South during 1960's, especially establishing of a legal service to aid residents and activists. Comments on legislation as means of insuring civil rights.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RAGLAND, Martha (n.d.), joint with    RJB 108
TODD, Mollie
Chairman, Tennessee State Advisory Committee, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Discuss the family and social pressures experienced by southern white women who support or get involved in civil rights activities. Identify the objectives and activities of white-predominated organizations, especially women's groups, with civil rights foci. Describe local (Nashville, TN) conditions of school inequality, Black poverty, tense police-Black community relations, and white backlash and "flight" to the suburbs. Critique local white politicians' responses and stands on these and other civil rights issues.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: December 23, 1967
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RANDOLPH, A. Philip (1889-1979)    RJB 384
President, Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. Recalls his childhood and early education in Florida. Discusses his interest
in Marxism and his work as an active Socialist. Makes reference to how he became leader of the Sleeping Car Porters and the union's negotiations with the Pullman Company. Discusses his celebrated idea to March on Washington, which led to the issuance of Executive Order 8802.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: January 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RATTLEY, Jessie (n.d.)    RJB 613
Member, City Council, Newport News, Virginia. Relates her campaign strategy and principal legislative interests. Describes what she considers the major fault of Black politicians, that of non-allegiance to their constituency. Gives a socio-economic picture of Black life in her city.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RAUH, Joseph L., Jr. (1911-1992)    RJB 32
Civil rights - civil liberties lawyer. General counsel, Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. Traces his civil rights career from
protest demonstrations in Washington, D. C. to his present activities with the Leadership Conference. Remembers the role of
A. Philip Randolph in the execution of Executive Order 8802.  Discusses role of Leadership Conference in influencing civil rights legislation during 1950's and 1960's. Reviews civil rights activities of Presidents John Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Discusses the challenge by the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the Democratic National Convention - 1964.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 104 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RAWLINGS, Charles W. (n.d.)    RJB 81
Director, Urban Affairs Council of Churches of Greater Cleveland.  Discusses the education, racial, and socio-economic problems of Cleveland, Ohio.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: November 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RAYMOND, George (1943- )    RJB 333
Leader, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Former director, Mississippi chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE).  Cites his reasons for joining the Freedom Rides in 1961 and describes his work with various civil rights organizations in Mississippi. Recalls the origins and assesses the leadership of the Conference of Federated Organizations, the Freedom Vote project, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, and comments on the attitudes and impact of the northern white students who participated in these efforts. Discusses his role on Child Development Group of Mississippi's board and notes the scope, influence, and impact of antipoverty programs locally and generally. Speculates on the reasons the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and CORE withdrew from Mississippi.  Offers comments on the Poor People's Campaign and on self-defense-oriented Black organizations in Mississippi such as the Black Hawks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: September 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RAYNER, A. A., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 544
Alderman, 6th ward, Chicago, Illinois. Elected 1967. Discusses his defeat in 1963, plight of independent candidates who oppose the democratic political organization of Mayor Daley, solutions to some of the city's problems, Operation Breadbasket, Black capitalism.  Comments on the effectiveness of Congressman Ralph Metcalf and the late William Dawson.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REED, Eugene T. (n.d.)    RJB 303
Former president, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Amityville, New York chapter. Leader, NAACP "Young Turks." Recounts NAACP activities of his local chapter. Discusses formation of Young Turks and their proposals to institute structural changes within the NAACP at the 59th annual convention.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 28, 1968
Format: Transcript, 94 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REED, Joe L. (n.d.)    RJB 51
Executive secretary, Alabama State Teachers Association. Discusses history and role of organization in "advancing the dignity of Negroes and the...teaching profession" in Alabama.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: February 15, 1968
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal
representatives or assigns.

REED, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 396
Candidate for mayor, Tuskegee, Alabama. Candidate, Alabama House of Representatives. Describes his upbringing in the segregated South. Chronicles the formation and purpose of the interracial Macon County (Alabama) Interaction Group and his duties as president of SEASHA (Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association).  Appraises the impact of federal antipoverty programs in Macon County. Discusses his political ambitions and campaign platforms.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REESE, Frederick (n.d.)    RJB 406
Member, Dallas County (Alabama) Voting League. Instrumental in organizing the Selma-to-Montgomery March. Discusses some of his voter registration efforts, the political philosophy of the League, and results of its efforts. Describes the Selma-to-Montgomery March, its organization, violence, and positive effects. Compares tactics of Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee in their approach to the problems of Selma's Blacks.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REEVES, Frank D. (1916-1973)    RJB 489
Attorney. Professor of law, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Reflects on his legal and political involvements in the civil
rights movement, from the 1940s and 50s on the faculty of Howard University's law school, as a lawyer with the national office of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and as a member of the Fair Employment Practices Commission during FDR's presidency. Follows with discussion of his activities in the late 50s and 60s as an advisor to presidential candidates Averell Harriman, Adlai Stevenson, Hubert Humphrey, and John F. Kennedy and member of the Democratic Party national committee. Recalls his efforts to extract personal commitments from each of these candidates to support civil rights issues, especially that of getting JFK to contact Coretta Scott King when her husband was jailed in Birmingham. (Ascribes Kennedy's overwhelming Black political support and victory to that action.)  Discusses factors contributing to the NAACP's decision to focus on educational equity and school desegregation in the 50s. Recalls
the legal arguments employed and roles played by NAACP attorneys Thurgood Marshall, Charles Houston, and Robert Carter in the Brown v. Board of Education case. Explains the establishment, purpose, and separate status of the NAACP Legal Defense Fund.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REID, Herbert (n.d.)    RJB 16
Professor of law, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Examines value of law in changing race relations. Discusses role of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund and the Howard Law School in the civil rights movement. Recalls some of Howard's outstanding law professors. Looks at some civil rights legislation.
Interviewer: Harold O. Lewis
Date: August 9, 1967
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal
representatives or assigns.

REID, McCann (ca. 1928- )    RJB 241
Editor, Tri-State Defender, Memphis Tennessee. Recalls conditions leading to Memphis garbage strike and some effects of the strike.  Comments on volunteer police reserve force. Discusses editorial policy of his paper.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REYNOLDS, Isaac (n.d.)    RJB 683
Former field secretary, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), New  Orleans, Louisiana. Focuses on incidents of racist violence that led him and others to eventually abandon their belief in nonviolence and adopt a stronger self-defense, Black Power stance.  Recounts how, as a Freedom Rider in 1963, he and his cohorts en route to Birmingham were ambushed by KKK and plainclothes policemen who viciously beat them and burned their bus. Describes the severe physical injuries, long-term emotional damage, and continued harassment suffered by both Black and white Freedom Riders.  Details the torturous conditions he and other civil rights workers experienced in a Jackson, Mississippi jail (he was on death row).  Recalls the Birmingham church bombing in which four Black youngsters were killed; the later bombing of the hotel in which he and other civil rights workers including Martin Luther King, Jr., were staying; and the murders of Swerner, Chaney, and Goodwin.
Describes the naiveté of northern whites and Blacks to the dangers of civil rights work in the South, and speculates on the
possibility of open race warfare in the United States. Describes the purposes and activities of the Deacons for Defense.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: May 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

REYNOLDS, Raymond J. (n.d.)    RJB 437
Judge, Municipal Court, San Francisco, California. Former president of the Topeka, Kansas National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) from 1929 to 1936. Describes  the racial climate, civil rights activism, and legal agitation in Topeka, Kansas prior to Brown v. Board of Education. Discusses his later civil rights and NAACP involvement as an attorney in San Francisco, highlighting memorable legal challenges he and others in that area mounted to segregation and discrimination during 1930s and 40s. Describes his duties and achievements as San Francisco's Deputy City Attorney and later as a judge in that city's municipal court. Denouncing separatism while supporting direct action, the Black Studies drive, Black students' activism, and the concept of Black Power, Reynolds shares his views on the future course of the civil rights movement and the roles of the Black and white bourgeoisie in that struggle.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RICH, Marvin (n.d.)    RJB 506
Former director of Community Relations, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Currently, president, Scholarship, Education and Defense Fund for Racial Equality (SEDFRE). Recalls how he became affiliated with CORE, activities of St. Louis chapter, freedom rides, change in CORE to predominantly Black leadership, appeal of the organization to whites, differences in chapters in the North and South, recruitment of James Farmer as national director.  Comments on CORE today and SEDFRE.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 6, 1969
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RICHMOND, Issac (n.d.)    RJB 207
Staff member, Penn Center, Frogmore, South Carolina, an organization that trains community leaders for work in the South.
Discusses community control and decentralization of public school education. Articulates activities of Grass Roots Rehabilitation Involvement Program, a "human rights" organization concerned with the health, education and welfare of its community. Discusses training programs at Penn Center.
Interviewer: Jim Leeson
Date: May 17, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RIPPLEY, Robert ( 1917- )    RJB 6
Staff associate, United Planning Organization, Washington, D. C.  Discusses his assignment at UPO. Also discusses CHANGE (Cardozo Heights Association for Neighborhood Growth and Enrichment) that attempts to elevate the social and economic conditions of that neighborhood.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 13, 1967
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBERSON, Peggy (n.d.)    RJB 174
Reporter, The Birmingham News. Discusses race relations in Birmingham, Alabama, and the changes she has witnessed in this area over a five-year span.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, her heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

ROBERTS, Geraldine (n.d.)    RJB 593
Founder, director and president, Domestic Workers of America (DWA), Cleveland, Ohio. Describes her upbringing and limited education in rural Arkansas. Explains how and why she organized the DWA.  Discusses the union's scope, sources of funding, its goals and programs for the economic empowerment of its membership, and its accomplishments and challenges.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 1, 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINS, Earline (n.d.)    RJB 646
Investigations supervisor, National Labor Relations Board (NLRB), Los Angeles, California. Describes her work with and the structure and functions of the NLRB. Discusses labor law practices.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINSON, Cleveland (n.d.)    RJB 168
National president, Negro American Labor Council, a labor union to promote better employment conditions of Blacks and other "oppressed workers." Discusses primary focus, goals, and achievements of his union. Examines barriers faced by Black workers and tactics used by the Council to break discriminatory employment by local and Federal government.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINSON, Ira (n.d.)    RJB 623
City councilman, Alexandria, Virginia. Recalls reasons for becoming a lawyer and how he was "pushed" into politics in
Alexandria. Cites credibility with Blacks as his major political problem. Explains how he relates to "extremists" and his goals
while in office. Discusses the shortcomings of Black elected officials. Relates his role as councilman in the council-manager
form of government. Describes Black life in Alexandria, particularly with respect to employment and education.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINSON, James H. (1907-deceased. n.d.)    RJB 328
Executive director, Operation Crossroads Africa, Inc., New York.  Recalls his impoverished upbringing in Tennessee and Ohio and his struggle to get an education and enter the (Presbyterian) ministry.  Talks of his early interests in international affairs and identification with Africa, and chronicles his travels to India and Africa in the 1950s. Describes the Operation Crossroads Africa program, detailing its scope, funding sources, relationship with the State Department, challenges, successes, alumni involvement, and future directions. Advocates improved diplomatic and economic relations between Africa and America and the need for greater interpersonal contact between Africans and Black Americans.  Discusses his domestic civil rights and desegregation efforts, and relates Operation Crossroad Africa's work in Africa to the Black American struggle, primarily noting the impact of the program experience on the attitudes and outlooks of young whites who predominantly participate in it.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: November 1, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINSON, Lewis G. (n.d.)    RJB 87
ROBINSON, Beth (n.d.), joint interview
Formerly director, Jomo Freedom Kenyatta (JFK) House, a center for Black culture, education, and self-help in Cleveland, Ohio.  Discusses activities of the center. Recall aspects of Cleveland riot, 1967. Discuss several local Black civil rights and self-help organizations including Management Recruiter, a job placement and counseling agency; Freedom Fighters, volunteers who fight discrimination in Cleveland; United Negro Development, which raises funds for loans to small businesses.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 15, 1967
Format: Transcript, 66 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROBINSON, Marvin (n.d.)    RJB 503
Formerly, Southern regional director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Active participant in sit-in movement while a student at Southern University. Concentrates on demonstrations, especially student strategy, course of sit-ins, role of faculty and administration, dismissal of student participants from Southern.  Discusses activities as CORE staff member.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: October 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROGERS, Will Henry, Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 446
Former worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Mississippi. Presently associated with Grassrooters Interested in Poverty Elimination (Gripe). Recalls SNCC's organizing efforts in the South, its successes and failures. Discusses procedures on voter registration. Gives origin and purpose of Mississippi Summer Project and Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Discusses the expulsion of whites from SNCC leadership. Assesses value of Selma to Montgomery March. Describes plans for GRIPE.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROMERO, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 193
Coordinator, Southwest leg, Poor People's Campaign. Charter member, Crusade for Justice, an organization for Mexican-Americans in poverty and need. States purpose of his organization and reasons for associating it with the Poor People's Campaign.  Articulates Mexican-Americans' differences with Southern Christian Leadership Conference during Campaign. Presents Mexican-American demands for educational reform and land reclamation.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROOKE, Elaine L. (n.d.)    RJB 362
Parent representative on the governing board, Ocean Hill-Brownsville Demonstration Project. Describes her work as president of the PTA at the embattled Colman Junior High School (P.S. 201) in the Ocean Hill-Brownsville area of New York City. Explains how the group's and community's efforts to remove a prejudiced principal led to confrontation with the local school board and fostered the movement to develop an independent, community-controlled school district, on whose governing board she later served. Details the planning and implementation processes engaged in by the parents and
their advisors (notably Ford Foundation consultants and Rhody McCoy, the decentralized district's appointed unit administrator), and the processes by which parent, community, teacher, administrative, and professional representatives were elected to the district's governing board. Re-enacts a parent-to-parent encounter to describe how activists mobilized the community around the issue of local control.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: December 29, 1968
Format: Transcript, 77 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROUGHEAU, Weldon (n.d.)    RJB 555
Student, Southern University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Former field secretary, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Former field director, Voter Education Project, Southern Regional Council.  Discusses his early CORE work in VEP (Voter Education Project)-funded Miami voter registration programs in 1962, in which he recruited Black teenagers to help with significant results.  Describes the types of voter education and orientation programs in CORE's repertoire, and the challenges organizers faced in keeping their activities nonpartisan.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: April 17, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROWAN, Carl T. (1925- )    RJB 364
Former Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. Former U. S. Ambassador to Finland. Former director, U. S. Information Agency. Defends his firm integrationist stance in response to questions about the 1960s separatist movement among Black college students. Details his own efforts to bring more Blacks into the communications field and to educate the public to the realities and effects of segregation through his media columns. Advocates improved communications and cohesiveness (self-help) between Blacks in concurrence with white efforts to stamp out blatant racism.  Assesses Black and white (Lyndon B. Johnson and Nixon, notably) national leadership stands on civil rights issues and enforcement.  Debates pros and cons of the Black Power movement and examines its semantics, particularly the use of the term "militant." Offers brief comments on the white student movement.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: January 29, 1969
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ROWE, Brenda (n.d.)    RJB 644
As an eighth-grade student, integrated a formerly white public school in West Virginia during the late 1950's. Discusses these
experiences. Presently a social worker with the Parent Advisory Board of Head Start program in Los Angeles, California. Discusses the board's function and appraises the effectiveness of Head Start's program.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: October 27, 1970
Format: Transcript 21, 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RUDOLPH, Wilma (n.d.), joint with    RJB 439
TYUS, Wyomie
Olympic champion and triple gold medal winner. Administrative analyst, Black Studies Program, University of California, Los
Angeles. Both reflect on their pre- and post-Olympic experiences.  They further discuss the lack of financial support for Black
athletes and poor training outreach to Black communities. Rudolph critiques the bureaucratic structure of the U.S. Olympic Committee.  She also comments on the mounting threat of boycotts that preceded the 1968 Mexico City games over the participation of South African athletes and the Black condition in America, and notes the roles played in that regard by Black American athlete-activists John Carlos, Tommy Smith, and Harry Edwards. Tyus discusses her work as a UCLA Black Studies program staffer.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RUMFORD, Byron (n.d.)    RJB 525
Member, California State Legislature. Describes the extent of segregation and race relations in San Francisco in the 1920s and
30s. Details his early National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) involvement and entry into politics in 1948: how he gained his seat in the California state legislature and his efforts to enact fair housing and employment practices legislation.  Recalls the activities and influence of Bay Area civic, civil rights, and direct action groups of various ethnic constituencies over the decades. Discusses the ideological differences between groups such as the NAACP and the Black Panthers, and comments on Black political power. Assesses the effectiveness of local Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) and urban renewal programs.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: March 13, 1970
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RUSSELL, Carlos (1934- )   RJB 662
Assistant professor and head, Educational Services, Brooklyn College. Former associate editor, The Liberator magazine. Recalls his student activism in his native Panama and his later work counseling Black street gangs in Chicago. Details his work and that of his associates with The Liberator, describing the collective way in which articles were developed. Notes the extent
of literary critic and historian Harold Cruse's involvement with the paper.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

RUSTIN, Bayard (1910-1984)    RJB 534
An organizer of the 1963 March on Washington. Executive Director, A. Philip Randolph Institute, New York City. Discusses his Quaker/pacifist beliefs, his efforts to protest World War II, and his subsequent imprisonment for those convictions. Describes work with Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR), and chronicles the early history of the Congress of Racial of Equality (CORE) which was initially developed as a department of FOR. Recounts work as first Field Secretary of FOR for CORE and details the 1946/1947 "Journey of Reconciliation," the first freedom rides, which tested southern state compliance with the 1946 Supreme Court decision in the case of Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia. [This landmark case found invalid the Virginia statute segregating passengers according to color on public interstate motor carriers because it imposed a "burden upon interstate commerce."] Discusses his years at the War Resistance League which supported his work for Martin Luther King Jr. and his participation in the formation of the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC).
Interviewer:
Date: 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: Standard


RUTHERFORD, John C. (n.d.)    RJB 226
Administrative coordinator, Resurrection City. Concentrates on the problems in Resurrection City in the areas of construction, security, transportation, organization and food services.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standar


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SALVATORI, Henry (n.d.)    RJB 418
Campaign manager for Samuel Yorty in his third-term bid for mayor of Los Angeles. Discusses the campaign in relation to Yorty's leading opponent, Black candidate, Thomas Bradley. Explains why Bradley polled a large per cent of the total vote in the primary, attributing it to "Black sympathy." Discusses "Communist and militant influences" in the Bradley camp.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 21 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard



SAMPSON, Albert Richard (1938- )    RJB 229
Staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Atlanta, Georgia. Recalls origin of idea of Poor People's Campaign. Discusses the marshalling of forces for Campaign and some problems of Resurrection City.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SANDERS, Emma (n.d.)    RJB 472
Leader, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). Head, Haynes County Head Start Program. Reminisces about the character and activism of her college classmate Medgar Evers, recalling the Jackson community's reaction to his murder. Offers explanation for the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) subsequent moratorium on demonstrations in Mississippi and describes the mounting disillusionment of several local NAACP field workers. Discusses the roles of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) workers (especially Bob Moses) in the Freedom Vote project, and identifies areas of conflict between local ministers and community leaders and outside activist groups. Gives a history of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party: its supporters and detractors; and the challenge raised by it, the Loyal Democrats, and Young Democrats to the established Mississippi Democratic Party. Discusses Head Start and Child Development Group of Mississippi antipoverty program activities, contending the co-option of civil rights activists into the latter and its spin-off groups (Mississippi Action for Progress and the Friends of the Children of Mississippi). Cites the dangers involved in civil rights work in southern Mississippi. Reflects on CORE's and SNCC's decisions to withdraw from civil rights activity in the state. Speculates on the future of the civil rights movement locally and nationwide.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 8, 1969
Format: Transcript, 91 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SAUNDERS, Bill (n.d.), joint with RJB 204
PHENIX, Roger
Community organizer, Johns Island, South Carolina. Discusses public school education in Johns Island, and why he now prefers Black schools for Black youth, rather than integrated education. Reveals some of his ideas and programs for Black school system. Discusses employment conditions for Black hospital workers in his city.
Interviewer: Leeson
Date:
Format: Transcript, 63 pages (incomplete); tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SAVAGE, Philip (1932- )    RJB 44
Field director, Tri-State Area, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses his experiences in student protests at Morgan State College, Baltimore. Relates activities with NAACP in voter registration and anti-segregation measures in Cambridge, Maryland.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his written permission. Upon his death MSRC may give permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SCATTERGOOD, Charles (1941- )    RJB 576
Former Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) worker in Mississippi during the 1960's. Describes his involvement in civil rights, including protest demonstrations in Washington and California. Discusses his association with SNCC, especially his difficulty in being accepted by the organization after it embraced "Black Power." Also discusses friction between Black and white workers, reaction of white community to civil rights workers, voter registration, and reaction of Black local residents to white SNCC members. Comment on Black Panthers and why they are supported by elements of the "radical left."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 2, 1970
Format: Transcript, 61, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHERMER, George (n.d.)    RJB 76
Author. White House consultant on inner-city problems. Recounts his Depression-New Deal era entry into interracial reconciliation/mediation activities and public housing management on Chicago's south side. Describes racial divisions and violent conflicts in that city (and also in Detroit) in the 1940s due to deliberate and discriminatory tenant selection practices. Recalls his experiences as director of Philadelphia's Commission on Human Relations and appraises that Commission's vanguard efforts in advancing the concept and model of affirmative action in housing and employment. Discusses contemporary federal urban renewal and public housing efforts. Argues the need for broad social change to effect Black economic advancement and assesses the status of the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 125 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHINGLE, Frank E. (n.d.)    RJB 248
Local leader, John Birch Society, Memphis, Tennessee. Comments on the Memphis garbage strike within the framework of his organization's philosophy. Suggests alternative methods to striking by which sanitation workers could have achieved their demands. Comments on the "Communist" influence in the civil rights movement.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHNEIDER, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 249
Editor, Memphis Press-Scimitar. States why his paper opposed local garbage strike in 1968. Comments on why strike developed into racial issue. Discusses the effect of the newspaper boycott on his paper. Assesses the mood of Memphis after the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCHWARZCHILD, Henry (1925- )    RJB 314
Former executive director, Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee, an organization of volunteer lawyers formed to represent the Black community and civil rights workers in the South. Discusses some of the initial problems of the Committee and its funding and impact on legal rights in the South in relation to Blacks. Discusses relevance of civil rights movement to him as a Jewish refugee from Nazi Germany.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: July 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 72 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SCOTT, C. A. (1908- )    RJB 127
Editor-publisher of The Atlanta Daily World, one of few Black daily newspapers in U. S. A. Discusses origin and political effect of the Daily.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEALE, Bobby (1936- )    RJB 346
Chairman, Black Panther Party. Discusses origin, development, philosophy, and programs of the Black Panthers.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 14, 1968
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEAY, Solomon, Jr. (1932- )    RJB 269
Attorney. Discusses some of the civil rights cases in which he was counsel. Gives insight into the legal problems involved in the Selma-to-Montgomery March.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SEIGENTHALER, John (n.d.) RJB 234
Former administrative assistant to the late Robert F. Kennedy during part of his tenure as Attorney General of the U. S. Remembers the civil rights activities of Kennedy and his staff, including his relationship with Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses the Justice Department's role in freedom rides, voter registration, and the employment of Blacks in the Department.
Interviewer: Robert Campbell
Date: July 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SELLER, Barney (n.d.)    RJB 491
Formerly of Project Enforcement, Office of Economic Opportunity. Discusses the 350 page study he compiled in which he examined the efforts of private civil rights groups in Washington, D. C., and Federal agencies having powers to enforce civil rights. Relates the results of his study and its acceptance by various groups.
Interviewer: Helen Hall
Date: December 23, 1969
Format: Transcript, 50 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

SHAGALOFF, June (1928- )    RJB 308
First director of education, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls her activities in preparing communities for integrated education prior to the Supreme Court decision of 1954, and methods of implementing desegregation after the ruling.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: September 5, 1967
Format: Transcript, 92 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHAKOW, Patricia Connell (n.d.)    RJB 410
Legislative aide, Senator Jacob Javits (R.-New York), U. S. Congress. Explains why some civil rights bills passed and others did not, recalling the strategies and tactics employed by pro-civil rights congressmen and their staffs to get the Civil Rights Bill of 1964 out of committee and onto the Senate floor for a vote. Discusses also the 1965 voting rights bill and the open housing bill of 1966. Identifies key figures in congressional activity around civil rights legislation, notably the roles played by senators Everett Dirksen, Sam Ervin, Hubert Humphrey, Jacob Javits, Richard Russell, and Strom Thurmond. Cites the influence of church and labor groups, especially the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights, in shaping congressional and public opinion on civil rights issues. Speculates on the incoming Nixon administration's position on civil rights enforcement and the future of civil rights legislation.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 37 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHANKER, Albert (n.d.)    RJB 531
President, American Federation of Teachers. Provides the teachers' perspective of the bitter conflict that developed between the predominantly white teachers' union and the Black and Puerto Rican parents and members of the Ocean Hill-Brownsville (New York City) community which organized to form an independent, community- controlled school district. Describes the union's objectives in its negotiations with community leaders, and gives reasons for teachers' resistance to the kind of community control the residents sought to implement. Discusses the role played by Ford Foundation advisors in the creation and advancement of the demonstration district. Criticizes the actions and tactics of central district school board members as union-busting in their intent, and attributes much of the tension between the parents and teachers to the central board. Explains why the teachers went on strike in September 1967 and discusses the community's reaction to the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHANNON, Katherine (n.d.)    RJB 297
Former staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and worker in Poor People's Campaign. Discusses outstanding persons, events and aspects of the Campaign. Relates successes and difficulties involved. Details life in Resurrection City.
Interviewer: Claudia Rawles
Date: August 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 81 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHERMAN, Magnolia (n.d.)    RJB 603
Intermediary worker for Welfare Rights Association, Cleveland, Ohio. Discusses the need for her organization and some of its accomplishments.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: July 31, 1970
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHUMAN, Mark A. (n.d.)    RJB 559
Student, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland. Suggests possible reasons for the violence that accompanied a UMD student demonstration against the Viet Nam War. Describes the violence, the police methods used to suppress the crowd, and some of the strategies of the protesting groups. Discusses the differences between the Black and white student movements at UMD and nationally.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 9 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SHUTTLESWORTH, Fred L. (1922- )    RJB 94
Founding member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses harassments he endured because of his civil rights activism, including the bombing of his home and church in Birmingham. Recalls SCLC campaign in Birmingham, Alabama. Discusses origin of SCLC and gives insight into the personality of Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses idea for March on Washington 1963.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 1968
Format: Transcript, 94 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIAS, Henry (1881- )    RJB 278
Chairman, Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), Issaquena County, Mississippi. Member of MFDP 1964 delegation that challenged seating of the "regulars" at the Democratic Convention in Atlantic City.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMMONS, Althea (n.d.)    RJB 574
National director, Educational Services, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Reflects on her career as an NAACP legal counsel, especially her work with its voter registration and education projects throughout the South, focusing on the activities of the NAACP youth branches. Recalls NAACP Mississippi involvement in the Conference of Federated Organizations, the Freedom Vote project, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Discusses the other NAACP programs; and describes her current duties with the NAACP: recruiting second- and third-level leadership in Black communities. States NAACP positions on community control, Black Studies, separate dormitories for Black students on white college campuses, consumer education, and the cooperative movement. Highlights the relationship between the Howard University Law School and the NAACP. Describes the reactions of NAACP-Washington, DC-branch staffers and other civil rights figures who were actually present at the Supreme Court building on May 17, 1954, or in the DC area when the Brown v. Board of Education decision was handed down.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: June 18, 1970
Format: Transcript, 26 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMMONS, Samuel (n.d.) RJB 674
Assistant secretary, Equal Opportunity, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Recalls his early involvement with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) as a college student "testing" public accommodation providers' observance of desegregation laws; then as an NAACP research staffer, a labor dispute mediator with the Michigan Fair Employment Practices Commission, and later member of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights. Delineates his HUD duties and objectives: administering and enforcing the Fair Housing Law and coordinating the construction of mass-produced federal housing projects for low- income residents. Describes countermanding tactics used by local governments, construction companies, and building trades unions to avoid desegregation and affirmative action statutes, and details HUD's responses to noncompliance. Articulates a vision of Black and minority capitalism and entrepreneurship, especially heightened Black involvement in the housing industry. Compares the Nixon, Kennedy, and Johnson administrations' commitment to HUD programs.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: January 14, 1971
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SIMPSON, Larry (n.d.)    RJB 579
President, Kent State Black Student Union. Comments on the lack of Black student participation in the Kent State demonstrations in 1970. Discusses the goals of the Black Student Union and the activities of its six divisions--communications, cultural, educational, economic, social, defense.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions Standard

SIRLES, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 459
Community service worker, district 4, Economic Opportunity Council, San Francisco, California. Discusses the formation of the Black Student Union (BSU) at Golden Gate College and that group's relatively peaceful, nonconfrontational achievement of its demands for curricular and administrative changes aimed at making the college more meaningful for students of color.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SLAINMAN, Donald (n.d.)    RJB 366
Director, civil rights department, AFL-CIO. Discusses objectives and programs of his division. Explains method used to process complaints of discrimination by workers. Relates role of unions in combating social and civil rights problems. Discusses AFL-CIO's support of civil rights legislation and progress Blacks have made within unions. Describes LEAP (Labor Education Advancement Program), a project operated jointly with the National Urban League.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: January 14, 1969
Format: Transcript, 43 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMILEY, Glenn E. (1910- )    RJB 42
Associate executive director, Fellowship of Reconciliation, a pacifist group often active in civil rights endeavors. Discusses his role as advisor to Martin Luther King Jr., in tactical nonviolence, during Montgomery bus boycott. Also relates his experiences in civil rights demonstrations in other Southern centers.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 12, 1967
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SMITH, A. Maceo (n.d.)    RJB 182
Assistant to regional director, Department of Housing and Urban Development, Dallas, Texas. Concentrates on the activities of the Committee of Fourteen, a bi-racial group of Black and white businessmen and civic leaders which attempted to bring about peaceful integration in Dallas.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: May 2, 1968
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Edward (n.d.)    RJB 589
President, Student Government, Morgan State College, Baltimore, Maryland. States his reasons for enrolling at Morgan State, the goals of his student body presidency, and his personal rewards from student government involvement. Describes the general student climate and recalls several student protests there in 1970 after the Jackson State killings and the school administration's reactions to the protests. Explains why MSU's student government association broke off from the predominantly white National Students Association. Comments on Black Baltimore congressman Parren Mitchell's political and civil rights leadership.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Kelly Miller (n.d.)    RJB 261
Former adult leader and advisor in the Southern civil rights protest movement of the early 1960's. Also discusses his youth in all-Negro town in Mississippi.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: December 22, 1967
Format: Transcript, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Lou (1929- )    RJB 350
Former member, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Director, Operation Bootstrap, a non-profit Black enterprise in Los Angeles, California. Traces CORE's adoption of the Black Power concept from its 1965 convention in North Carolina. Discusses Operation Bootstrap--its origin, philosophy, and some of its entities, which include a school, factory, and publishing company.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Maxine (n.d.) RJB 251
Executive secretary, Memphis, Tennessee chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP). Looks at Memphis during the garbage strike and its aftermath. Discusses NAACP activities prior to and during the strike.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Melvin (1939- )    RJB 277
Elected constable on the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) ticket in Issquena County, Mississippi in 1967. Discusses his duties, his town, and why he was the only successful MFDP candidate in that election.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Robert L. T., Sr. (n.d.)    RJB 486
Member, Jackson (Mississippi) chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates his opinions on Black voter registration efforts in Mississippi from the 1920s through the 60s and evaluates changes in the racial climate of the South. Recalls his involvement in civil rights activities in Mississippi as head of the Jackson Movement after Medgar Evers's assassination, first treasurer of the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO), and as an active participant in the Freedom Vote campaign and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Identifies several of the workers and organizations involved in support of civil rights efforts in Mississippi and chastises those Blacks who were more compliant and afraid to jeopardize their privileged positions with the white power structure. Discusses the economic status of Black Mississippians in the 1960s.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, S. Edward (n.d.), joint with RJB 36
ATKINSON, Albert B.

Executive director, Office of Economic Opportunity, Maryland office. Describes on-the-job training programs administered through his office. Looks at socio-economic situation of Blacks in Baltimore.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Scott B., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 59
Former project director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Describes internal struggle of CORE in Chicago, causing it to split along ideological and racial lines. Gives eyewitness account of Southern voter registration.
Interviewer Stanley H. Smith
Date: October 1968
Format: Transcript, 58 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Stanley H. (n.d.)    RJB 175
Sociologist. Chairman, Social Sciences Division, Tuskegee Institute. Member, Tuskegee (Alabama) City Council. Discusses economic and social changes in his city as a result of Blacks being elected to the city council. Reflects on Tuskegee's gerrymandering case. Discusses the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association (SWAFCA) and the Southeast Alabama Self-Help Association (SEASHA) as economic opportunities for lower income Blacks.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: April 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SMITH, Welton (n.d.)    RJB 498
Poet. Student. One of the initiators of Stanford University African-American Literary Journal. Talks about his experiences as a Black student at Stanford University in the 1960s and about the formation of the Afro-American Association (AAA) there. Highlights the AAA's community improvement and economic development efforts and its cultural activities, especially the three annual "Mind of the Ghetto" conferences it sponsored on inner-city life. Discusses his poetry, the role of the artist in society and in the Black struggle, and the commodification of art.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: January 30, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPEISER, Lawrence (n.d.)    RJB 218
Director, Washington, D. C. office, American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). Gives origin, nature, growth and membership of his organization. Makes reference to several ACLU cases in the civil rights area. Discusses concept of civil disobedience. Gives ACLU's connection with Lawyers Constitutional Defense Committee, and discusses some of LCDC's activities.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 1968
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPERO, Richard (n.d.)    RJB 572
Professor, Howard University, Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Henry Smith
Date: June 8, 1970
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SPINGARN, Arthur (1878-1971)    RJB 165
Former president, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses the NAACP in its infancy--its programs, staff, and funding. Comments on many of the organization's outstanding personalities, including W. E. B. DuBois, Walter White, and Roy Wilkins. Looks at today's NAACP.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: March 6, 1968
Format: Transcript, 42 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STALLWORTH, Edward (n.d.)    RJB 196
First Negro desk sergeant, Tuskegee (Alabama) police force. Discusses activities and duties of that position and changes he instituted within the police department.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: June 4, 1968
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STANLEY, Frank L., Sr. (n.d.)    RJB 300
Editor-publisher, Louisville Defender, Louisville, Kentucky. Highlights his newspaper career and gives a brief history of the Black press in America--its role and contributions, present status, relationship to the white press, and problems. Discloses The Defender's circulation and distribution. Discusses his involvement in the civil rights involvement and describes generally the important role of the Black press, revealing the activist roots of many prominent Black newspaper figures. Identifies Black press "graduates" among prominent civil rights leaders.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: September 19, 1968
Format: Transcript, 49 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEELE, Percy H., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 427
Executive director, Bay Area Urban League, San Francisco, California. Recalls highlights of his two-decades-plus career organizing and reorganizing offices of the Urban League across the country to focus on race relations, police-community relations, employment, vocational training, housing, and welfare issues in the inner city. Focuses on the San Francisco branch's involvement with the United Freedom Movement and other civil rights and student activist groups in the 60s. Discusses the Third World coalition concept, Black Power, and the Black Panthers.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 19, 1969
Format: Transcript, 68 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEVENS, Jose (n.d.)    RJB 667
Harlem organizer, American Communist Party. Founding member, Young Workers Liberation League. Explains his Marxist philosophy and gives history of the League (founded in 1970). Discusses his involvement in tenants' rights activities and outlines his campaign platform in his bid for (undisclosed) public office. Shares views on labor aspects of the Ocean Hill-Brownsville school district dispute, Black capitalism and capitalists, and the class struggle in America.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEWART, Darneau V. (n.d.)    RJB 697
Member, School Board, Detroit, Michigan. Discusses his 1963 and 1964 platforms and campaigns for election to the Detroit school board, the latter of which he won for a 6-year term. Describes his duties on the board and his and other Black board members' efforts to change teacher examination and tenure regulations to increase the number of Black teachers and effect policy changes aimed at integrating school system staffs.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 10, 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STEWART, Pearl (n.d.)    RJB 670
Feature editor, Hilltop, Howard University student newspaper, Washington, D. C.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOKES, Louis (1925- )    RJB 713
Representative (D.-Ohio) and chairman, Black Caucus, U. S. Congress. Discusses his reasons for entering politics. Concentrates on Black Caucus, including its origin and goals, divisions within the group; relationship to President Nixon's Administration. Comments on Black National Political Convention in Indiana (1972) and Black support of Democratic and Republican presidential candidates.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: March 14, 1973
Format: Transcript, 12, 16, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOKES, Sim (n.d.)    RJB 661
Associate director, Management and Technical Assistance, the President's Advisory Council on Minority Business Enterprise. Describes the scope of the Advisory Council's mandate and broadly discusses minority business enterprise and finance issues and strategies. Gives opinions on Black separatism and political direction.
Interviewer: Norma Leonard
Date: December 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 74 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STOVALL, Charlayne Hunter (1942- )    RJB 11
First Negro woman to matriculate and graduate from the University of Georgia. Relates some of her experiences there, and those of her fellow Black colleague, Hamilton Holmes.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 26, 1967
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

STROMAN, C. F. (n.d.)    RJB 655
Professor, Aerospace Studies, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Shares highlights of his military career--particularly incidents of racism and his reactions to them--and of his experiences as an ROTC instructor at Howard University. Describes the campus climate and student attitudes. Comments on the concept of Black Power and compares the effectiveness of various civil rights groups.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 80 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SUAREZ, Matteo (n.d.) RJB 468
Former field secretary, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Mississippi. Discusses the creation of the New Orleans CORE chapter and the factors leading to its dissolution as an integrated branch and later reconstitution as an all-Black group. Comments on CORE's activities in Mississippi, particularly with the Freedom Vote project and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Cites reasons why CORE pulled out of Mississippi and points out broader racial, economic, and geographical tensions and disparities between CORE's national office staff and its field staff. Describes the scope and activities of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference-sponsored New Orleans Consumers League. Briefly discusses the development of the Free Southern Theater in New Orleans. Notes the successes and goals of a cooperative trucking firm and other entrepreneurial ventures he and other Black New Orleanians developed with federal loan assistance.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 11, 1969
Format: Transcript, 48 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SUGARMON, Russell B. Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 192
Representative, Tennessee State Legislature. Attorney. Recalls his experiences as demonstrator, lawyer and advisor to protesters who sought to end segregated public facilities in Memphis in the early 1960's. Contrasts tactics and attitudes of present day protesters with those of early 1960's. Looks at situation and condition of Blacks in Memphis.
Interviewer: Clayton Braddock
Date: May 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 52 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

SULLIVAN, Leon H. (1922- )    RJB 46
Minister and community organizer, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. First director, Operation Breadbasket--campaign that selectively boycotts industries and companies to force them to hire Blacks. Founder Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC), a manpower training program. Discusses these endeavors. Also discusses other economic programs he initiated, such as housing complexes and a shopping center financed by Blacks.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 25, 1967
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

SULLIVAN, Neil (n.d.)    RJB 79
Superintendent of the Prince Edward County, Virginia Free School Association, when the public schools re-opened in 1964, after being closed for five years in order to avoid integrating.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 17, 1967
Format: Transcript, 83 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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TAITT, Adelaide L. (n.d.)    RJB 296
Activist, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Describes the Atlanta Student Movement of the late 1950s through the 60s. Highlights the activities and tactics of Atlanta University, Morehouse, and Spelman student members of SNCC and the Committee on Appeal for Human Rights to integrate public theaters, restaurants, and transportation services and to "test" desegregation progress via boycotts, sit-ins, jail-ins, and media pressure. Discusses her own prison experiences and that of other civil rights protesters. Reads a few entries from her jailhouse diary. Recalls especially the activities of her friend, activist Ruby Doris Smith, a Spelman student, one of SNCC's founders, and its first executive secretary.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 55 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TATE, Horace E. (1922- )     RJB 637
Associate director, Georgia Association of Educators, Atlanta, Georgia. Reflects on his experiences as a school principal in rural "Jim Crow" Black public schools in Georgia in the 40s, citing his behind-the-scenes efforts to organize Black parents and community leaders to improve conditions in these schools and to register to vote. Gives brief history of the (Black) Georgia Teachers Association (GTA), describing its structure and purpose and his leadership role in that organization prior to Brown v. Board of Education. Describes the impact of desegregation on Black teachers, school administrators, and students. Discusses the reasons for and effects of the GTA's 1970 merger with the larger, mostly white, state teachers' association to form the National Education Association-affiliated Georgia Association of Educators, focusing on his new role as vice president of the desegregated organization. Recounts discriminatory practices he was subjected to after his appointment to the NEA national board. Discusses his 1969 Atlanta mayoral campaign. Endorses Jimmy Carter's bid for the governorship and comments favorably on Lester Maddox's record of Black state employment. Advocates Black community control of schools and other community assets.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TAYLOR, Noel C. (1922- )    RJB 621
Member, City Council, Roanoke, Virginia. First Black so elected. Comments on his campaign, Black-white civic cooperation, Black political development and unity, problems peculiar to Black community, and means of livelihood in his city.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 27 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TAYLOR, William L. (1931- )    RJB 18
Staff director, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Formerly staff lawyer with NAACP Legal Defense Educational Fund. Discusses civil rights cases handled by Fund, and also their cost in terms of man- hours and finances. Relates anti-discriminatory measures of Civil Rights Commission that were enacted into law.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: August 8, 1967
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Antonio (1944- )    RJB 640
Associate director, Southern Center for Studies in Social Policy, which provides "day-to-day legal assistance for Black community organizations." Discusses duties as associate director; major programs of Center, especially services to Black elected officials; local politics in Georgia. Recalls sit-in activities as member of Committee on Appeal for Human Rights. Discusses role as legal intern to civil rights lawyers in the South during the 1960's.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: October 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Larry (n.d.)    RJB 595
Director, Black Unity Community Center and Black Unity House, Cleveland, Ohio. Explains programs and classes offered. Discusses funding of organization. Gives his definition of Black nationalism. Discusses relevancy of present American system to Blacks.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

THOMAS, Piri (n.d.)    RJB 53
Author. Discusses his book, Down These Mean Streets. Recites some of his prose and poetry which express life in inner-city ghettos. Discusses briefly his life to date.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: September 29, 1967
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TIJERINA, Reis (1926- )    RJB 194
Leader of Mexican-American contingency of Poor People's Campaign. Briefly describes his life to date. Discusses methods allegedly used by U. S. Government to wrest land grants from his people. Discloses his role in the Poor People's Campaign and the difficulty between it and SCLC.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 12, 1968
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TILLMAN, Nathaniel (n.d.)    RJB 209
Academic Dean of Instruction, Delaware State College. Discusses issues that caused student unrest at his school in 1968.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: June 13, 1968
Format: Transcript, 46 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

TILLSON, John B. (n.d.)    RJB 409
Tillson and some members of SNCC recall the murder of Jonathan Daniels, who was shot while working on a voter registration drive in Alabama.
Interviewer: John B. Tillson
Date: January 31, 1968
Format: Transcript, 18 pages
Restrictions: Standard

TODD, Mollie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 108
RAGLAND, Martha Mrs. Todd
of the League of Women Voters--Churchwomen United, and Mrs. Ragland, Chairman, Tennessee State Advisory Committee to the U. S. Commission of Civil Rights, discuss social and racial injustice in Nashville, Tennessee, and personal problems they experienced as white civil rights advocates.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: December 23, 1967
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TOWNES, Clarence L., Jr. (n.d.)    RJB 571
Special assistant to the chairman of the Republican National Committee. Two interviews. First deals with his civil rights activities in Virginia prior to joining the National Committee; how he became associated with the Republican Party and subsequently the National Committee; duties with that organization; theories on the use of political power for the vested interest of minority groups; Nixon's "Southern strategy." Second interview concerns Nixon's political strategy; Virginia politics; Townes' role with the Nixon Administration.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: June 11, 1970
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TRACY, Octavius (1942- )    RJB 421
Director, Upward Bound, University of San Francisco. Member, Black Student Union, San Francisco State College (SFSC). Identifies the key leadership of the Black Student Union at SFSC during the 1960s (notably that of Donald Warden and Jimmy Garrett), the activities they led and their thrust to make the college more responsive to Black students and Blacks in the local community. Discusses the concepts of Black Power and the Third World, the Black Panthers, Black and other ethnic group studies, white racism, Black separatist and integrationist ideologies, and the possibility of violent racial confrontation in America.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 10, 1969
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TRENT, William (n.d.)    RJB 584
Director of Equal Opportunities Education, George Washington University, Washington, D. C. Discusses the need for and purpose of his service, a remedial compensatory program for Black incoming students at George Washington. Reviews aspects of his program, including counseling, tutorial service and the summer remedial course. Comments on the lack of Black faculty and Black studies program at the University.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: July 14, 1970
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUCKER, Sterling (1923- )    RJB 5/500
Director, Urban League, Washington, D. C. Traces his association with the Urban League to date. Discusses activities and programs of the D. C. Chapter. Gives his ideas on riots, their causes and eradication. Discusses public education in Washington.
Interviewers: Vincent J. Browne; James M. Mosby Jr.
Dates: July 17, 1967; October 18, 1969
Format: Transcripts, 43 pages; 10 pages; tapes not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUREAUD, A. P. (1899-1972)    RJB 467
Veteran activist, New Orleans Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls the challenges of his active legal career as a lawyer for the New Orleans NAACP, working with Thurgood Marshall and Charles Houston on issues of voter registration and desegregation in higher education. Digresses to relate a colorful history of the Black presence in Louisiana from the 18th century through Reconstruction to the 1900s and the civil rights era. Comments on Louisiana governor Huey Long's racial perspectives.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 9, 1969
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TURNER, Jesse (n.d.) RJB 256
President, Memphis chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Cites the NAACP's position and efforts in support of the striking Memphis sanitation workers and in the Memphis area generally. Gives background information on the strike: the long-standing grievances of the men and their previous attempts to unionize; the formation of the Community on the Move for Equality (COME); and the mobilization of the Memphis community around the issue--the related boycotts and almost daily marches staged during the strike. Recalls Martin Luther King Jr.'s visits to Memphis, explains why King was called, and considers the impact of King's assassination on the strike negotiations. Compares the Loeb and Ingram mayoral administrations' relationships with the Black Memphis community, and outlines racial divisions in Memphis city politics.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 51 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TUTT, Stacey (n.d.) RJB 617
Member, City Council, Culpepper, Virginia. First Black elected since 1887. Describes low-income housing and recreational facilities as primary needs of Black citizens. Discusses the economic base, employment, and Black migration in this city of approximately 6,000 inhabitants.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: August 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 12 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

TYUS, Wyomie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 439
RUDOLPH, Wilma

Olympic champions and gold medal winners. Administrative analysts, Black Studies Program, University of California, Los Angeles.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 15, 1969
Format: Transcript, 54 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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UDALL, Morris K. (1922- )    RJB 709
Representative (D.-Arizona). U. S. Congress. Recalls childhood influences that geared him towards career in government. Discusses Mormon Church dogma as it relates to Blacks. Looks at civil rights legislation during Johnson Administration and its outlook under Nixon. Examines areas of job discrimination in Federal government. Comments on effectiveness of Congressional Black Caucus.
Interviewer: Edward Thompson III
Date: February 22, 1973
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

UNGER, Paul (1914- )    RJB 84
Chairman, Cleveland (Ohio) Subcommittee, U. S. Commission on Civil Rights. Reflects on his government and civic service activities in Cleveland, particularly as a member of the local Civil Rights Commission whose efforts focused on eliminating housing, hiring, and welfare discrimination against the urban poor. Describes the efforts of the Cleveland Inner-City Action Committee and the Businessmen's Interracial Committee to improve police-Black community relations, increase the number of Black police, create other employment opportunities, and renew the inner city. Comments on new (Cleveland's first Black) mayor Carl Stokes's platform and political future and compares Stokes's and his predecessor's race- relations records.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 15, 1967
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

USSERY, Wilfred T. (1928- )    RJB 434
Second national vice-chairman, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and president, Black Urban Systems, a consulting firm that advises Black communities on acquiring control of institutions, services, and resources generated within their environs. Discusses activities of San Francisco CORE in areas of de facto school segregation and employment.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 17, 1969
Format: Transcript, 101 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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VINSON, Luther H. (n.d.)    RJB 666
Assistant to the president, Freedom National Bank of New York. Former leader, Rochdale (New York) chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Relates the historical importance and achievements of Black-owned banks in the South. Gives history of Freedom National Bank in Harlem: its 1964 establishment, backers, objectives, and growth. Comments on the white-dominated banking industry's role in creating Black ghettos in the urban North, citing Black banks' efforts to reverse economic decline in Black communities. Advocates for the continued support and promotion of Black banks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 22 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

VIVIAN, C. T. (n.d.)    RJB 153
Former staff member, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Discusses some of the civil rights campaigns in which he was involved including the Nashville (Tennessee) movement and St. Augustine (Florida) movement. Describes the philosophy and guidance of Martin Luther King Jr. and other SCLC officials in various activities and demonstrations.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

VORSPAN, Albert (1924- )    RJB 107
Director, Commission on Social Action, Union of Hebrew Congregations. Discusses the civil rights-social action thrust of his department. Looks at the attitudes and role of Jews in the civil rights area.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 19, 1967
Format: Transcript, 75 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

A B C D E F G H I J K L M Mc N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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WAGNER, Freida (n.d.), see Walker, Tillie    RJB 231


WAITHE, Eldridge (1908- )    RJB 73

Negro Deputy Chief Inspector, New York City Police Department. Discusses his experiences as a law enforcement officer and the conflicts of a Black policeman.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 3, 1967
Format: Transcript, 65 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WALKER, A. Maceo (1909- )    RJB 254
Chairman of the board and president, Universal Life Insurance Company, Memphis, Tennessee. Discusses the Memphis garbage strike, including the grievances of the sanitation workers and why he believed the strike was justified. Describes the protest marches.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 17 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Thomas (n.d.)    RJB 578
Member, Yale University Strike Committee. Discusses reasons for joining the strike committee, May Day, Black students at Yale, and effect of campus strikes.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: June 19, 1970
Format: Transcript, 18 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Tillie (n.d.), joint with    RJB 231
WAGNER, Freida
Two American Indian participants in the Poor People's Campaign. Relate how they became involved in the movement. Discuss tribal opposition to the movement, the gathering of Indian Participants across the country, and life in Resurrection City. Walker describes United Scholarship Service, a private agency devoted to higher education for Indians.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: July 1968
Format: Transcript, 40 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALKER, Wyatt Tee (1929- )    RJB 56
Former executive director, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Describes personalities, operations, and projects connected with SCLC. Discusses relationship of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to SCLC.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: October 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 102 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALLACE, William (1937- )    RJB 273
Co-chairman, Greenwood Movement, Greenwood, Mississippi. Discusses the "militant but nonviolent" philosophy of the Movement. Recalls its origin. Cites reasons for the boycott in Greenwood, including the lack of Black employment in business and government.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 7, 1968
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALLER, Alfred (n.d.)    RJB 85
Discusses United Pastors Association, a civic and social action group in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 11, 1967
Format: Transcript, 16 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALMSLEY, Arthur (1928- )    RJB 115
Acting associate director, Department of Christian Social Relations of the Episcopal Church. Traces the development of the Episcopal Church's attitude towards integration following the supreme Court decision of 1954.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 8, 1968
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WALTER, Francis X. (n.d.)    RJB 400
Director, Selma Inter-Religious Project, Selma, Alabama. Founder Quilting Bee Industry, Gees Bend, Alabama. Describes his entry, as an Episcopal minister, into civil rights activities in Alabama, noting especially his roles in the formation of ESCRU (the Episcopal Society for Cultural and Racial Unity) and the Selma Interreligious Project (SIP). Outlines the purpose, composition, and achievements of both groups. Highlights their involvement and that of other white groups and individuals before, during, and after the 1965 Southern Leadership Conference-coordinated march on Selma. Discusses conflicts between white and Black, local and "outside" civil rights factions in Selma and other parts of Alabama where he worked. Assesses the political conflicts between rural Dallas County (Alabama) whites and Blacks. Details the conflict between Shirley Mesher, a former Southern Christian Leadership Conference worker, and Rev. Frederick Reese in particular. Comments on the creation and operation of an Office of Economic Opportunity-funded antipoverty agency, Self-Help Against Poverty for Everyone, a local Voters League organization, and a farmers' cooperative (the Southwest Alabama Farmers Cooperative Association). Describes the activities of the Southwest Alabama Self-Help Housing, Inc., and a Black women quilters' cooperative in rural Wilcox County and his leadership/guidance role in these two enterprises. Comments generally on the role of whites in the civil rights movement and the exploitation of Blacks in the rural South.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: August 1968
Format: Transcript, 70 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WARDEN, Donald (1936- ) RJB 426
Founder, Afro-American Association, San Francisco, California. Reflects on how he overcame an educationally underprivileged background to attend Howard University and the University of California-Berkeley law school and become an attorney/community activist. Discusses his role in the creation of an all-Black reading/study group at UC-Berkeley, the Afro-American Association, which evolved into a cultural organization that developed and provided comprehensive civic programs in the Black Bay Area community. Describes the "Mind of the Ghetto" conferences the group sponsored and the local radio and television shows it produced, which he hosted. Notes his relationship with singer James Brown, highlighting the political consciousness-raising influence he had on Brown's musical directions during the 60s.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 25, 1969
Format: Transcript, 61 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WARREN, John (n.d.)    RJB 669
Student, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Recalls student protests and the political climate at Howard University in the late 1960s, especially around the issue of making the university "more relevant" and demands for a "Black university." Discusses his own involvement in student government. Contrasts James Nabrit's administration and relationship with students and faculty to that of his successor, James Cheek.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: January 1971
Format: Transcript, 30 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATKINS, Hollis (1941 )    RJB 285
Former field secretary, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Mississippi. Recalls his teenage interest and involvement in the Freedom Rides and voter registration efforts. Discusses his role as a Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) field secretary and trainer in Mississippi in the early 1960s. Describes his work (and subsequent repeated arrests and beatings) in the escalating voter registration movement in Macon County. Delineates the responsibilities of SNCC's Bob Moses (voter registration) and Marion Barry (direct action). Comments on the relationship between SNCC staff and Medgar Evers of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), and on the NAACP's role in the Conference of Federated Organizations (COFO). Chronicles the evolution of the Freedom Vote project--debating the pros and cons of white northern students' involvement in it, and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. Discusses the origins and objectives of the Child Development Group of Mississippi, citing reasons for SNCC's disapproval of the program.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: August 5, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATKINS, Terry (n.d.)    RJB 651
Administrative assistant, Watts Labor Committee for Community Action, Los Angeles, California. Talks primarily about her father's (Ted Watkins) role as director of the nonprofit center and about the center's multifaceted functions and programs aimed at providing vocational, agricultural, and clerical training to the people of Watts, especially the youth, and restoring the economy of the riot-torn areas.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 28 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WATTS, Daniel H. (n.d.)    RJB 516
Editor-in-chief, Liberator magazine. Discusses Liberator, its origins, initial thrust, circulation, operational difficulties. Recalls ideological differences with Martin Luther King Jr. Discusses various factions and theories of Black nationalism. Comments on anti-Semitism in the Black community. Gives origin and purpose of Freedom Now Party.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WEAVER, Robert (1907-deceased, n.d.)    RJB 377
Former Secretary, U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. Two interviews. First interview concentrates on circumstances surrounding his appointment as Secretary, necessity of integrated housing, problems of public housing, his meeting with the delegation from the Poor People's Campaign, lobbying techniques used to effect the fair housing portion of the Civil Rights Act of 1968, and assessment of his tenure as Secretary. Second interview deals with fair housing portion of Civil Rights Act of 1968 including its origin, drafting, administration, support, opposition, introduction into the Senate. Also discusses his opposition to housing bill that would allow private sponsors to rehabilitate or buy homes for resale to lower income persons.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: March 12, 1969
Format: Transcript, 64 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WEAVER, Rosetta (n.d.) RJB 557
President, Opportunities Industrialization Center (OIC), Bernard M. Baruch College. Shares her experiences as a Black American living and working in Cuba and Ghana. Describes her OIC fundraising work and the programs at the Center.
Interviewer: Malaika Lumumba
Date: February 4, 1970
Format; Transcript, 39 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WELSH, Mike (n.d.), joint with    RJB 378
NOLAN, David

Executive secretary, Southern Student Organizing Committee.
Interviewer: Shatz
Date: Format: Transcript, 68, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WESCHLER, Stuart (1942- )    RJB 106
Associate director, Baltimore chapter, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discussion of his activities with CORE--its freedom rides, voter registration experiences in the South, and urban activities in Baltimore, Maryland.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: December 15, 1970
Format: Transcript, 154 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WESLEY, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 519
Executive director, Association for the Study of Negro Life and History. Discusses Carter G. Woodson's relationship to the Association including its organization September 1915; launching of Journal of Negro History, 1916; Negro History Week; founding of Negro History Bulletin, 1937. Recalls funding of Association in early years. Discusses Congressional efforts to establish National Commission on Afro-American History.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: March 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 31 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITE, Andrew (n.d.)    RJB 93
Minister. Executive secretary-treasurer, Division of Christian Education, African Methodist Episcopal Church. Recalls his attack on the Red Cross' discriminatory policy of separating the blood of white and Black donors. Discusses school desegregation activities in Nashville, Tennessee, prior to 1954 Supreme Court decision. Relates the differences in Nashville in the area of "enlightened progress" from his arrival in 1948 to the present.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITE, Charles (n.d.)    RJB 660
Member, Student Council, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses his military experiences as a soldier, stateside and in Viet Nam.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: November 9, 1970
Format: Transcript, 14 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WHITECLOUD, Jim (n.d.)    RJB 651
Vice-director, Los Angeles (California) Indian Center. Describes the historic functions and future plans of the Indian Center in providing services to Native Americans who migrate to urban areas from the reservations. Describes conditions on the reservations and the diversity of Indian groups.
Interviewer: Nanette Freeman
Date: October 26, 1970
Format: Transcript, 8 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILCOX, Preston (n.d.)    RJB 205
Former professor of social work, Columbia University. Director, Bedford-Stuyvesant Development and Service Corporation (Educational Affiliate). Discusses "myth" of integration and why he supports quality Black public schools. Suggests reasons for school decentralization and community control. Discusses curriculum of four year community-controlled and community-oriented college planned for the Bedford-Stuyvesant area. Comments on campus dissent at Columbia University.
Interviewer: Jim Leeson
Date: May 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILDER, Lawrence Douglas (aka L. Douglas) (1931- )    RJB 612
State senator, Richmond, Virginia. Discusses his legislative priorities, problems of being the only Black senator, welfare reform and lack of employment opportunities in Richmond.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: August 23, 1970
Format: Transcript, 19 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILEY, George (1931-deceased) RJB 335/679
Executive director, National Welfare Rights Organization (NWRO). Former associate national director, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). In the first of two interviews Wiley relates his involvement as faculty advisor to student groups at the University of California-Berkeley during the early 60s, and his later CORE affiliation in Syracuse, NY, focusing on public housing issues. In the second interview he contrasts his New England upbringing with his National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) voter registration experiences in rural Virginia, his Army officer status with his community activist role, and his desire to pursue a career as a research chemist with his commitment to civil rights work. Identifies his early civil rights influences and recalls his first impressions of CORE's philosophies, tactics, and activists. Traces his climb within that organization from the local to the national level, discussing his relationships with CORE leaders Julius Hobson, Marvin Rich, James Farmer, and Floyd McKissick, and appraising their effectiveness and program initiatives. Recalls his duties as CORE's Administrative Director from 1965-66. Explains his ideological differences with McKissick.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; James M. Mosby Jr.
Dates: January 20, 1968, 1970
Format: Transcripts, 92 pages; 24 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILKINS, Roger (n.d.)    RJB 20
Director, Community Relations Service, U. S. Department of Justice. Details the function, purpose and some activities of his department, related to discriminatory and/or minority group problems.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: August 14, 1967
Format: Transcript, 56 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository. No quotation or citation during the lifetime of the oral author without his permission to quote or cite. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WILKINS, Roy (1901-1981)    RJB 550
Executive director, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discusses origin and objectives of NAACP. Recalls when he came to the national office. Remembers outstanding persons with Association including W. E. B. DuBois, Walter White, Thurgood Marshall. Discusses organization's role in improving working conditions for Blacks, Montgomery bus boycott, voter registration, sit-in movement, school desegregation, civil rights legislation, A. Philip Randolph's planned March on Washington, 1941; challenge of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party at the 1964 Democratic National Convention. Explains why he opposed Black Power slogan. Comments on Adam Clayton Powell.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Dates: April 29, 1970 and May 5, 1970
Format: Transcript, 89 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILKS, Gertrude (1927- )    RJB 461
Founding member, Mothers for Equal Education, Palo Alto, California. Discusses origin and activities of her group, which was formed to secure better education for Black students. Recalls her "sneak-out program" in which students from her community lived in other areas and attended schools there for a period of time. Discusses Nairobi High, a private school she organized for Blacks, initially with volunteer staff and community funds.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 28, 1969
Format: Transcript, 95 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Franklin H. (n.d.)    RJB 632
President, Phelps-Stokes Fund. Former U. S. ambassador to Ghana. Former civil rights attorney, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Describes the racial climate and identifies Black issues on the West Coast during the 1950s. Discusses his terms as San Francisco NAACP president and as California's assistant attorney general. Recalls his involvement in Republican Party politics during the Stevenson/Eisenhower race. Explains how and why he was later lured to Washington to help set up the Peace Corps, serving as its African regional director; and from there to serve as member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations. Describes his duties, challenges, and achievements in both roles. Discusses his ambassadorship to Ghana: how he lobbied for the job, the Ghanaian economic and political climate, his impressions of and encounters with president Kwame Nkrumah, and his observations of the coup that overthrew Nkrumah. Notes that attempts on Nkrumah's life began soon after Nkrumah announced plans to visit North Viet Nam to help negotiate resolution of the Viet Nam War. Appraises Nkrumah's effectiveness and shortcomings. Comments on the CIA's presence in Ghana and disputes the American media's accounts of the coup. Explains why he left foreign service to head Columbia University's Urban Center; notes the Center's purpose and programs. Identifies his pet projects at Phelps-Stokes and discusses the foundation community's support for civil rights efforts. Traces the evolution of the Black struggle for civil rights and equal opportunity. Discusses the conditions in America's urban ghettos and offers solutions to urban crises. Offers general comments on the War on Poverty, the War in Viet Nam, New York City Black politics, and on improving communication and unity among Blacks.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, James O. (1923- )    RJB 118
Northeast chairman, Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Discusses activities, tactics and strategy of Philadelphia CORE including its role in the termination of the Black face Mummer's Day Parade. Examines the life of a Black man in Philadelphia. Discusses 1962- 1963 CORE schism.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: January 11, 1968
Format: Transcript, 102 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, John A. (Deceased n.d.)    RJB 305
Author. Responds to questions about the roles and responsibilities of Black writers and comments on the dilemmas they face. Identifies white writers whose work has influenced him. Discusses his own published novels and works-in-progress. Gives his views on the economic exploitation and oppression of Black people in Africa and throughout the Diaspora, and on Europeans' perceptions of race. Debates the validity of the Black separatist movement.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 25, 1968
Format: Transcript, 38 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Maurice (1929- )    RJB 671
Professor, Military Service, Howard University, Washington, D. C. Discusses his military career and his experiences as an ROTC instructor at Howard. Assesses the campus/student mood and Howard students' general reactions to and feelings about ROTC. Describes the Howard ROTC program. Comments on the level of racial awareness in the Army and its efforts to accommodate Black service personnel as a result of the civil rights movement. Shares views on traditional civil rights groups, Black nationalist and separatist movements, Black Power, and social-class issues among Blacks. Declines comment on the justness of the Viet Nam War.
Interviewer: Allen Coleman
Date: October 20, 1970
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILLIAMS, Robert F. (n.d.)    RJB 588
Former director of the Monroe (North Carolina) National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Former president, Republic of New Africa. Chronicles the discriminatory treatment he experienced while serving in the Marine Corps. Traces the history of Monroe (Union County), North Carolina Blacks' armed resistance movement to white racism from the 1940s through the 1960s. Describes his role and mission as leader of a "fighting branch" of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people (NAACP) in that community, which advocated militaristic Black self- defense tactics and an uncompromising civil rights position. Describes the activities of the branch, its programs, organizational structure, membership, and conflicts with NAACP national leadership figures (particularly Roy Wilkins and Daisy Bates). Describes numerous violent encounters of Blacks with white supremacist groups and police, specifically recalling four attempts on his life. Relates the situation that led to his 6-month suspension from the NAACP and the branch's being cut off from NAACP support. Contrasts white and Black media coverage of the conflict in Union County, and describes The Crusader, a publication published by Black activists there. Notes the supportive international coverage his group received, the far-flung responses to their calls for material aid, and visits from foreign journalists. Explains how and why Blacks in Monroe formed a National Rifle Association-chartered gun club and resorted to openly carrying weapons. Assesses the effects of the presence of white and Black pacifists who organized a nonviolent demonstration in Monroe in August 1961. Gives his account of the riots that followed when white hate groups mounted a united assault on the protesters, a situation that led to his fleeing North Carolina and going into exile to avoid federal prosecution. Describes his experiences and activities in exile in Cuba (5 years) and China (3 years). Discusses the political, racial, and economic climate in Cuba; focuses on the events surrounding Cuban revolutionary hero Che Guevara's disappearance. Explains why and how he left Cuba. Contrasts the reception and treatment he received in Cuba with that in China; also contrasts the people and the two forms of communism in these two nations. Recalls his visit with Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi. Contrasts his experiences in Cuba and China with his experiences in African nations en route back to the U.S. Explains why he decided to return to America; describes efforts by diplomatic officials to get him to denounce Black militancy and work with Martin Luther King Jr.. Describes the events of his arrest upon arrival in Detroit. Details legal aspects of his struggle to avoid being extradited back to North Carolina. Comments on his en absentia roles in the Republic of New Afrika (RNA) and RAM (Revolutionary Action Movement). Cites reasons for his increasing belief in Black separatism. Notes changes in race relations and integration in Monroe and nationwide that occurred during his exile, and speculates on future developments.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: July 22, 1970
Format: Transcript, 223 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILMORE, Gayraud S. (n.d.)    RJB 292
Race relations specialist, Department of Social Justice, United Presbyterian Church. Recalls his involvement in civil rights activities, from the 1930s as a student at Lincoln University working with the Student Christian Movement and speaking on academic freedom and race relations; to the 1950s as a United Presbyterian Church (UPC) minister, and later as chairman of the UPC's Division of Church and Race. Explains the duties of his present office. Describes the activities of the UPC generally and his agency specifically in social justice, civil rights, and urban renewal efforts--focusing primarily on the church's financial support of church and lay groups. Discusses the advent and thrust of the interdenominational National Committee of Negro Churchmen; states that group's positions on Black Power and the role of the church in the Black community. Describes the antidiscrimination/antiracism activities of the UPC's suburban action centers. Interview concludes with interviewer reading from a descriptive brochure about the Council on Church and Race (COCAR).
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: August 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 45, 46, 47 pages; tape not available
Restrictions; Standard

WILMORE, Jacques (1926- )    RJB 316
Director, Northeast field office, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Formerly, director, Memphis Field Office, U. S. Civil Rights Commission. Recalls events that changed the Memphis sanitation strike into a civil rights issue. Examines various attitudes in Black community concerning the strike. Discusses role of Civil Rights Commission in garbage strike of 1968.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: September 26, 1968
Format: Transcript, 32 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, Camille (n.d.)    RJB 529
Student, Kent State University. Recalls the Kent State Black student organization's campus activities and shares both her own and the Black Student Union's responses to the murders of white student antiwar demonstrators there and at Jackson State.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 15 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, Charles E. (n.d.)    RJB 529
General counsel, California State Fair Employment Practices Commission. Chronicles his role in drafting fair employment practices and fair housing legislation as a member of the Legal Redress Committee of the San Francisco National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Recalls his most significant legal battles to integrate Blacks into housing, schools, employment after WWII. Describes his duties as a member of the California Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) since 1960. Discusses the range of interests and functions of the FEPC and its interactions with "radical" or "militant" constituent groups. Comments on Black community control, the Black separatist movement, and the future of traditional civil rights groups.
Interviewer: Robert E. Martin
Date: July 22, 1969
Format: Transcript, 41 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WILSON, John (ca. 1942- )    RJB 541
Former field secretary and member, National Executive Committee. Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Chairman, National Black Anti-War Draft Union (NBAWDU). Chronicles his civil rights/desegregation activism in Maryland's Eastern Shore region, first as a student at Bowie State College organizing Students Appeal for Equality (SAFE) and working with SNCC; and later in Princess Anne County communities organizing sit-ins, mass meetings, demonstrations, and biracial committees. Describes the increasingly violent nature of Black-white conflict as civil rights activism accelerated in the county, noting a lack of support for direct action efforts offered by the local Black middle-class. Discusses the ideology, financial base, and activities of the Black Panther Party, claiming it originated as a SNCC spin-off group in Alabama but gathered momentum in California. Notes ideological differences between Stokely Carmichael and Eldridge Cleaver. Elaborates on Pan-Africanism, Black Power and community control, and Black-white alliances. Offers comments on racism and capitalism generally.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 18, 1968
Format: Transcript, 69 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WINGATE, Livingston (n.d.)    RJB 535
Former executive director, HARYOU-ACT (Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited). Discusses origins of HARYOU and ACT and their subsequent unification. Recalls the development of the program and some of its problems. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of anti-poverty programs for Blacks.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WIRTZ, Willard W. (1912- )    RJB 367
Secretary, U. S. Department of labor. Referring repeatedly to the findings of the Kerner Commission report, Wirtz broadly discusses the roots of poverty, detailing his views on the responsibilities of government, the private sector, civil rights groups, and the poor themselves. Weighs the effects of rising expectations of the poor about antipoverty programs against the realities of limited or reduced appropriations for and enforcement of these programs. Discusses significant aspects of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1965, the Green Amendment to it, federal manpower training programs, and other antipoverty programs. Discusses the meaning of the term "maximum feasible participation of the poor." Recalls Labor Department officials' meetings with representatives of the Poor People's Campaign during its 1968 March on Washington, recounting the groups' demands and assessing the effects of the march on national attitudes and opinion.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: December 10, 1968
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WORKMAN, William D. (n.d.)    RJB 257
Editor, The State, a Columbia, South Carolina newspaper. Author, Case for the South, which attempts to explain Southern views on school desegregation and race relations. Discusses methods used to circumvent the Supreme Court school decision, 1954. Reviews law suits that challenged separate but equal education in his state and the judicial decision that opened the Democratic primary to Blacks. Discusses his book.
Interviewer: John Egerton
Date: July 16, 1968
Format: Transcript, 60 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WORTHY, William (n.d.)    RJB 520
Newspaper correspondent, Baltimore Afro-American. States his philosophy of journalism. Comments on preference for covering international news rather than domestic affairs. Gives history of Freedom Now Party including reasons for ineffectiveness. Discusses travels in China and Cuba. Comments on role of "white left."
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: February 28, 1970
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WRIGHT, Isaac (n.d.)    RJB 665
Equipment Specialist, U. S. Marine Corps, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Recalls his military career and World War II experiences, highlighting incidents of discrimination and racial confrontation between Blacks of his Army unit, the "experimental" 76th Coast Artillery battalion of highly technologically skilled Black recruits, and white troops and civilians. Discusses the impact of Black soldiers' involvement in the war on race relations in the U.S. afterwards, and contrasts the experiences of Black WWII veterans with Black Viet Nam veterans. Comments on Black urban gang violence and police-Black community relations in Philadelphia.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: November 12, 1970
Format: Transcript, 67 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted from and cited. No reproduction in any form including microphoto, typewriter, photostat, etc. Researchers may seek permission from the oral author, his heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WRIGHT, James Skelly (1911-1988)    RJB 298
Judge, U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, District of Columbia. Recalls highlights of his legal career: his role as a prosecuting attorney in the "Louisiana Scandal"-Huey Long cases of the 1930s and 40s; his Supreme Court representation of Willie Francis (a Black death-row prisoner whose case rested on Wright's argument [the first ever] of the death penalty as "cruel and unusual" punishment); his role as a judge in overturning Louisiana State University law school's segregationist admissions policy; and his rulings to desegregate New Orleans's public schools and transportation systems. Discusses the significance of the Brown v. Board of Education decision and his personal reactions to it. Gives examples of white southerners' noncompliance, backlash, and evasive tactics to avoid desegregation mandates. Stresses the importance of leveraging funding to achieve compliance. Traces the sources of his commitment to integration and social justice and assesses the personal price of his legal decisions. Offers general comments on the impact and future direction of the civil rights movement and the role of the courts in furthering it.
Interviewer: Mary Gardner Jones
Date: September 9, 1968
Format: Transcript, 76 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: The record of this tape may be read in the repository, quoted and cited. No reproduction in any form, except with permission from the oral author's heirs, legal representatives or assigns.

WRIGHT, Michael (1941- )    RJB 170
Discusses his experiences as a Coordinator for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in the North and South. Describes results of administration's denial of student demands at Tuskegee Institute, 1968.
Interviewer: Stanley H. Smith
Date: April 23, 1968
Format: Transcript, 62 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from the oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

WRIGHT, Robert E. (n.d.)    RJB 239
Former field worker, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Alabama and Mississippi. Discusses his Harvard experiences of the 1960s and the challenges he and other Black American and African students there (and at Radcliffe) faced in organizing an exclusively Black student organization at Harvard. Recalls the goals and achievements of that group. Reflects on his three summers (1963-1965) spent working with SNCC in Mississippi: his arrival in Jackson on the day Medgar Evers was shot; his reactions to police violence against Black demonstrators; his voter registration activities in rural communities; his recruiting activities for the Freedom Summer project; and his roles as chair of the Civil Rights Coordinating Committee at Harvard and later as a member of the Law Students' Civil Rights Research Council. Discusses SNCC's approach to community organizing and explains how territories were assigned. Assesses the significance of the Freedom Summer and its outgrowths. Explains the "parallel structure" concept that guided the Freedom Vote project and the development of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party, and chronicles the growth of these two efforts. Discusses SNCC's role in soliciting/providing financial support for Black farmers' cooperatives in Alabama. Gives his impressions of SNCC leaders Bob Moses, Jim Forman, Timothy Jenkins, and Stokely Carmichael.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: July 22, 1968
Format: Transcript, 71 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WRIGHT, Stephen J. (n.d.)    RJB 712
Chairman, Policy Committee, Civil Rights Documentation Project and vice president, College Entrance Examination Board. Discusses matters related to the internal establishment of the Project. A former college president and dean (Fisk, Hampton and Bluefield) expresses his views on student activism. Appraises progress in civil rights, particularly in the field of education.
Interviewer: Vincent J. Browne
Date: 1973
Format: Transcript, 35 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

WURF, Jerry (n.d.)    RJB 324
International president, American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, AFL-CIO. Gives background on the integrated history of AFSCME (the Association of Federal, State, County and Municipal Employees). Describes how workers' demands for union protection and recognition led to a massive and violent confrontation between a Black community and the white power structure in Memphis. Explains why sanitation workers' strike leaders decided to use a combination of union and civil rights movement strategies and to what ends. Recalls the negotiations with city officials, his own role in that process, and that of key others such as Mayor Loeb and local Black ministers. Reflects on the significance and impact of the Memphis movement on Martin Luther King, Jr., and assesses the impact of King's presence and death on the situation locally. Estimates the monetary cost of the strike and its economic results.
Interviewer: James J. Mosby Jr.
Date: October 21, 1968
Format: Transcript, 44 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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YANCEY, P. Q. (Johnnie) (n.d.)    RJB 126
Adult civil rights protester in Atlanta during the student demonstrations in the early 1960's.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: January 24, 1968
Format: Transcript, 33 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Andrew (1932- )    RJB 32/706
Former executive vice president, Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). Representative (D.-Georgia), U. S. Congress.
Interviewers: Katherine Shannon; Edward Thompson III
Dates: July 16, 1968; December 20, 1972
Format: Transcripts, 32 pages; 25 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Jack H., Sr. (n.d.), joint with    RJB 685
HALL, Carsie

Attorney. Former president, Jackson (Mississippi) Chapter, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Interviewer: James M. Mosby Jr.
Date: June 3, 1970
Format: Transcript, 29 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Pete (n.d.)    RJB 386
Newspaperman, reported authority on the Ku Klux Klan. Characterizes Klan as the "white ghetto." Discusses Klan as a social movement. Examines schism between "moderate" and "militant" North Carolina Klansmen. Describes grievances and socio-economic plight of Klan, explaining why the poverty programs did not aid rural white South.
Interviewer: Will D. Campbell
Date: August 18, 1969
Format: Transcript, 34 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Quentin (n.d.)    RJB 158
Physician. Chairman, Medical Committee for Human Rights. Describes purpose, origin, and structure of his organization, which evolved from Southern civil rights workers' need for medical care. Relates role of his group in protest demonstrations. Discusses organization's present programs in Northern ghettos. Examines discrimination in Chicago hospitals.
Interviewer: John Britton
Date: February 20, 1968
Format: Transcript, 36 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

YOUNG, Whitney M., Jr. (1921-1971)    RJB 551
Executive Director, National Urban League. Recalls experiences in the Army in World War II that influenced his decision to become a social worker. Describes his civil rights activities in Atlanta, Georgia in the 1950's which paved the way for the student movement and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. Discusses his relationship with many of the leaders of the student movement such as Lonnie King and John Mack. Chronicles the changes that have occurred in the Urban League over time.
Interviewer: Robert Wright
Date: May 6, 1970
Format: Cassette tape
Tape length: 90 minutes
Restrictions: No reproduction

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ZELLNER, Dorothy (n.d.)    RJB 684
Former press aide Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). States reasons for joining SNCC. Concentrates on relations between Black and white members (1961-64) and the decline of SNCC.
Interviewer: James M. Mosby
Date: May 27, 1970
Format: Transcript, 23 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

ZINN, Howard (1922- )    RJB 99
Author and historian. Briefly outlines his career to date. Also discusses his involvement in the desegregation crisis in the South during the early 1960's.
Interviewer: Katherine Shannon
Date: November 28, 1967
Format: Transcript, 96 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Researchers must seek written permission from the oral author to use transcript during his lifetime.

ZORZA, Richard (1949- )    RJB 592
Coordinator, Peace Action Committee, Harvard University. Discusses his organization, its goals and activities and relations with the community surrounding the University. Comments on the student strike at Harvard, including the role of Black students, effect of slain students at Jackson State College on Harvard community, and influence of demonstrations at Harvard on other universities.
Interviewer: Jaye Stewart
Date: 1970
Format: Transcript, 20 pages; tape not available
Restrictions: Standard

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